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Emend Injection

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Emend Injection

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Fosaprepitant, a prodrug of aprepitant, when administered intravenously is rapidly converted to aprepitant, a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist. Plasma concentrations of fosaprepitant are below the limits of quantification (10 ng/mL) within 30 minutes of the completion of infusion. Upon conversion of 188 mg of fosaprepitant dimeglumine (equivalent to 115-mg fosaprepitant free acid) to aprepitant, 18.3 mg of phosphoric acid and 73 mg of meglumine are liberated. Upon conversion of 245.3 mg of fosaprepitant dimeglumine (equivalent to 150-mg fosaprepitant free acid) to aprepitant, 23.9 mg of phosphoric acid and 95.3 mg of meglumine are liberated.

Mechanism Of Action

Fosaprepitant is a prodrug of aprepitant and accordingly, its antiemetic effects are attributable to aprepitant.

Aprepitant is a selective high-affinity antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. Aprepitant has little or no affinity for serotonin (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors, the targets of existing therapies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Aprepitant has been shown in animal models to inhibit emesis induced by cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, via central actions. Animal and human Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies with aprepitant have shown that it crosses the blood brain barrier and occupies brain NK1 receptors. Animal and human studies show that aprepitant augments the antiemetic activity of the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist ondansetron and the corticosteroid dexamethasone and inhibits both the acute and delayed phases of cisplatin-induced emesis.

Pharmacodynamics

NK1 Receptor Occupancy

In two single-blind, multiple-dose, randomized, and placebo control studies, healthy young men received oral aprepitant doses of 10 mg (N=2), 30 mg (N=3), 100 mg (N=3) or 300 mg (N=5) once daily for 14 days with 2 or 3 subjects on placebo. Both plasma aprepitant concentration and NK1 receptor occupancy in the corpus striatum by positron emission tomography were evaluated, at predose and 24 hours after the last dose. At aprepitant plasma concentrations of ~10 ng/mL and ~100 ng/mL, the NK1 receptor occupancies were ~50% and ~90%, respectively. The oral aprepitant regimen for CINV produces mean trough plasma aprepitant concentrations > 500 ng/mL, which would be expected to, based on the fitted curve with the Hill equation, result in > 95% brain NK1 receptor occupancy. However, the receptor occupancy for either CINV or PONV dosing regimen has not been determined. In addition, the relationship between NK1 receptor occupancy and the clinical efficacy of aprepitant has not been established.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

In a randomized, double-blind, positive-controlled, thorough QTc study, a single 200-mg dose of fosaprepitant had no effect on the QTc interval.

Pharmacokinetics

Aprepitant after Fosaprepitant Administration

Following a single intravenous 115-mg dose of fosaprepitant administered as a 15-minute infusion to healthy volunteers the mean AUC0-∞ of aprepitant was 31.7 (± 14.3) mcg•hr/mL and the mean maximal aprepitant concentration (Cmax) was 3.27 (± 1.16) mcg/mL. The mean aprepitant plasma concentration at 24 hours postdose was similar between the 125-mg oral aprepitant dose and the 115-mg intravenous fosaprepitant dose. (See Figure 1.)

Figure 1: Mean Plasma Concentration of Aprepitant Following 125-mg Oral Aprepitant and 115-mg Intravenous Fosaprepitant

Mean Plasma Concentration of Aprepitant - Illustration

Following a single, intravenous 150-mg dose of fosaprepitant administered as a 20-minute infusion to healthy volunteers, the mean AUC0-∞ of aprepitant was 37.38 (± 14.75) mcg•hr/mL and the mean maximal aprepitant concentration (Cmax) was 4.15 (± 1.15) mcg/mL.

Distribution

Fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant. Aprepitant is greater than 95% bound to plasma proteins. The mean apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) is approximately 70 L in humans.

Aprepitant crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits and crosses the blood brain barrier in humans.

Metabolism

Fosaprepitant was rapidly converted to aprepitant in in vitro incubations with liver preparations from nonclinical species (rat and dog) and humans. Furthermore, fosaprepitant underwent rapid and nearly complete conversion to aprepitant in S9 preparations from multiple other human tissues including kidney, lung and ileum. Thus, it appears that the conversion of fosaprepitant to aprepitant can occur in multiple extrahepatic tissues in addition to the liver. In humans, fosaprepitant administered intravenously was rapidly converted to aprepitant within 30 minutes following the end of infusion.

Aprepitant undergoes extensive metabolism. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicate that aprepitant is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4 with minor metabolism by CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Metabolism is largely via oxidation at the morpholine ring and its side chains. No metabolism by CYP2D6, CYP2C9, or CYP2E1 was detected. In healthy young adults, aprepitant accounts for approximately 24% of the radioactivity in plasma over 72 hours following a single oral 300-mg dose of [14C]-aprepitant, indicating a substantial presence of metabolites in the plasma. Seven metabolites of aprepitant, which are only weakly active, have been identified in human plasma.

Excretion

Following administration of a single intravenous 100-mg dose of [14C]-fosaprepitant to healthy subjects, 57% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine and 45% in feces.

Aprepitant is eliminated primarily by metabolism; aprepitant is not renally excreted. The apparent terminal half-life ranged from approximately 9 to 13 hours.

Specific Populations

Gender

Following oral administration of a single dose of aprepitant, the AUC0-24hr and Cmax are 14% and 22% higher in females as compared with males. The half-life of aprepitant is 25% lower in females as compared with males and Tmax occurs at approximately the same time. These differences are not considered clinically meaningful. No dosage adjustment is necessary based on gender.

Geriatric

Following oral administration of a single 125-mg dose of aprepitant on Day 1 and 80 mg once daily on Days 2 through 5, the AUC0-24hr of aprepitant was 21% higher on Day 1 and 36% higher on Day 5 in elderly ( ≥ 65 years) relative to younger adults. The Cmax was 10% higher on Day 1 and 24% higher on Day 5 in elderly relative to younger adults. These differences are not considered clinically meaningful. No dosage adjustment is necessary in elderly patients.

Race

Following oral administration of a single dose of aprepitant, the AUC0-24hr and Cmax are approximately 42% and 29% higher in Hispanics as compared with Caucasians. The AUC0-24hr and Cmax are 62% and 41% higher in Asians as compared to Caucasians. There was no difference in AUC0-24hr or Cmax between Caucasians and Blacks. These differences are not considered clinically meaningful. No dosage adjustment is necessary based on race.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

For every 5 kg/m² increase in BMI, AUC0-24hr and Cmax of aprepitant decrease by 11%. BMI of subjects in the analysis ranged from 18 kg/m² to 36 kg/m². This change is not considered clinically meaningful. No dosage adjustment is necessary based on BMI.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Fosaprepitant is metabolized in various extrahepatic tissues; therefore hepatic impairment is not expected to alter the conversion of fosaprepitant to aprepitant.

Following administration of a single 125-mg dose of oral aprepitant on Day 1 and 80 mg once daily on Days 2 and 3 to patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 6), the AUC0-24hr of aprepitant was 11% lower on Day 1 and 36% lower on Day 3, as compared with healthy subjects given the same regimen. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9), the AUC0-24hr of aprepitant was 10% higher on Day 1 and 18% higher on Day 3, as compared with healthy subjects given the same regimen. These differences in AUC0-24hr are not considered clinically meaningful; therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.

There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score > 9) [see Use in Specific Populations].

Renal Insufficiency

A single 240-mg dose of oral aprepitant was administered to patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² as measured by 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance) and to patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis.

In patients with severe renal impairment, the AUC0-∞ of total aprepitant (unbound and protein bound) decreased by 21% and Cmax decreased by 32%, relative to healthy subjects (creatinine clearance > 80 mL/min estimated by Cockcroft-Gault method). In patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis, the AUC0-∞ of total aprepitant decreased by 42% and Cmax decreased by 32%. Due to modest decreases in protein binding of aprepitant in patients with renal disease, the AUC of pharmacologically active unbound drug was not significantly affected in patients with renal impairment compared with healthy subjects. Hemodialysis conducted 4 or 48 hours after dosing had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of aprepitant; less than 0.2% of the dose was recovered in the dialysate.

No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment or for patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis.

Clinical Studies

Fosaprepitant, a prodrug of aprepitant, when administered intravenously is rapidly converted to aprepitant.

Oral administration of aprepitant in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) has been shown to prevent acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy including high-dose cisplatin, and nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy (HEC)

EMEND for Injection 115 mg (3-Day Dosing Regimen of EMEND)

Fosaprepitant 115 mg intravenous infused over 15 minutes can be substituted for 125 mg oral aprepitant on Day 1 of a 3-day regimen. Efficacy studies with the 3-day regimen were conducted with oral aprepitant.

In 2 multicenter, randomized, parallel, double-blind, controlled clinical studies, the aprepitant regimen (see Table 11) was compared with standard therapy in patients receiving a chemotherapy regimen that included cisplatin > 50 mg/m² (mean cisplatin dose = 80.2 mg/m²). Of the 550 patients who were randomized to receive the aprepitant regimen, 42% were women, 58% men, 59% W hite, 3% Asian, 5% Black, 12% Hispanic American, and 21% Multi-Racial. The aprepitant-treated patients in these clinical studies ranged from 14 to 84 years of age, with a mean age of 56 years. 170 patients were 65 years or older, with 29 patients being 75 years or older.

Patients (N = 1105) were randomized to either the aprepitant regimen (N = 550) or standard therapy (N = 555). The treatment regimens are defined in Table 11.

Table 11 : Treatment Regimens Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Trials*

  Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
CINV Aprepitant Regimen
  Aprepitant 125 mg orally 80 mg orally 80 mg orally none
  Dexamethasone 12 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally
  5-HT3 antagonist† See package insert none none none
CINV Standard Therapy
  Dexamethasone 20 mg orally 8 mg orally twice daily 8 mg orally twice daily 8 mg orally twice daily
  5-HT3 antagonist† See package insert none none none
*Aprepitant placebo and dexamethasone placebo were used to maintain blinding.
†Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. was used in the clinical trials of aprepitant. Although this dose was used in clinical trials, this is no longer the currently recommended dose. Refer to the ondansetron package insert for the current dosing.

During these studies, 95% of the patients in the aprepitant group received a concomitant chemotherapeutic agent in addition to protocol-mandated cisplatin. The most common chemotherapeutic agents and the number of aprepitant patients exposed follow: etoposide (106), fluorouracil (100), gemcitabine (89), vinorelbine (82), paclitaxel (52), cyclophosphamide (50), doxorubicin (38), docetaxel (11).

The antiemetic activity of oral aprepitant was evaluated during the acute phase (0 to 24 hours postcisplatin treatment), the delayed phase (25 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment) and overall (0 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment) in Cycle 1. Efficacy was based on evaluation of the following endpoints in which emetic episodes included vomiting, retching, or dry heaves:

Primary Endpoint

  • complete response (defined as no emetic episodes and no use of rescue therapy as recorded in patient diaries)

Other Prespecified Endpoints

  • complete protection (defined as no emetic episodes, no use of rescue therapy, and a maximum nausea visual analogue scale [VAS] score < 25 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)
  • no emesis (defined as no emetic episodes regardless of use of rescue therapy)
  • no nausea (maximum VAS < 5 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)
  • no significant nausea (maximum VAS < 25 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)

A summary of the key study results from each individual study analysis is shown in Table 12 and in Table 13.

Table 12 : Percent of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Responding by Treatment Group and Phase for Study 1 — Cycle 1

ENDPOINTS Aprepitant Regimen
(N = 260)†%
Standard Therapy
(N = 261)†%
p-Value
PRIMARY ENDPOINT
Complete Response
  Overall‡ 73 52 < 0.001
OTHER PRESPECIFIED ENDPOINTS
Complete Response
  Acute phase§ 89 78 < 0.001
  Delayed phase|| 75 56 < 0.001
Complete Protection
  Overall 63 49 0.001
  Acute phase 85 75 NS*
  Delayed phase 66 52 < 0.001
No Emesis
  Overall 78 55 < 0.001
  Acute phase 90 79 0.001
  Delayed phase 81 59 < 0.001
No Nausea
  Overall 48 44 NS**
  Delayed phase 51 48 NS**
No Significant
Nausea
  Overall 73 66 NS**
  Delayed phase 75 69 NS**
†N: Number of patients (older than 18 years of age) who received cisplatin, study drug, and had at least one post-treatment efficacy evaluation.
‡Overall: 0 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
§Acute phase: 0 to 24 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
||Delayed phase: 25 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
*Not statistically significant when adjusted for multiple comparisons.
**Not statistically significant.
Visual analogue scale (VAS) score range: 0 mm = no nausea; 100 mm = nausea as bad as it could be.

Table 13 : Percent of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Responding by Treatment Group and Phase for Study 2 — Cycle 1

ENDPOINTS AprepitantRegimen
(N = 261)†%
Standard Therapy
(N = 263)†%
p-Value
PRIMARY ENDPOINT
Complete Response
  Overall‡ 63 43 < 0.001
OTHER PRESPECIFIED ENDPOINTS
Complete Response
  Acute phase§ 83 68 < 0.001
  Delayed phase|| 68 47 < 0.001
Complete Protection
  Overall 56 41 < 0.001
  Acute phase 80 65 < 0.001
  Delayed phase 61 44 < 0.001
No Emesis
  Overall 66 44 < 0.001
  Acute phase 84 69 < 0.001
  Delayed phase 72 48 < 0.001
No Nausea
  Overall 49 39 NS*
  Delayed phase 53 40 NS*
No Significant Nausea
  Overall 71 64 NS**
  Delayed phase 73 65 NS**
†N: Number of patients (older than 18 years of age) who received cisplatin, study drug, and had at least one post-treatment efficacy evaluation.
‡Overall: 0 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
§Acute phase: 0 to 24 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
||Delayed phase: 25 to 120 hours post-cisplatin treatment.
*Not statistically significant when adjusted for multiple comparisons.
**Not statistically significant.
Visual analogue scale (VAS) score range: 0 mm = no nausea; 100 mm = nausea as bad as it could be.

In both studies, a statistically significantly higher proportion of patients (both p < 0.001) receiving the aprepitant regimen in Cycle 1 had a complete response in the overall phase (primary endpoint), compared with patients receiving standard therapy. A statistically significant difference in complete response in favor of the aprepitant regimen was also observed when the acute phase and the delayed phase were analyzed separately.

In both studies, the estimated time to first emesis after initiation of cisplatin treatment was longer with the aprepitant regimen, and the incidence of first emesis was reduced in the aprepitant regimen group compared with standard therapy group as depicted in the Kaplan-Meier curves in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Percent of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Who Remain Emesis Free Over Time — Cycle 1

Percent of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Who Remain Emesis Free Over Time - Illustration

p-Value < 0.001 based on a log rank test for Study 1 and Study 2; nominal p-values not adjusted for multiplicity.

Additional Patient-Reported Outcomes: The impact of nausea and vomiting on patients' daily lives was assessed in Cycle 1 of both phase 3 studies using the Functional Living Index–Emesis (FLIE), a validated nausea-and vomiting-specific patient-reported outcome measure. Minimal or no impact of nausea and vomiting on patients' daily lives is defined as a FLIE total score > 108. In each of the 2 studies, a higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen reported minimal or no impact of nausea and vomiting on daily life (Study 1: 74% versus 64%; Study 2: 75% versus 64%).

Multiple-Cycle Extension: In the same 2 clinical studies, patients continued into the Multiple-Cycle extension for up to 5 additional cycles of chemotherapy. The proportion of patients with no emesis and no significant nausea by treatment group at each cycle is depicted in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Proportion of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy with No Emesis and No Significant Nausea by Treatment Group and Cycle

Proportion of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy with No Emesis and No Significant Nausea - Illustration

EMEND for Injection 150 mg (Single Dose Regimen of EMEND)

EMEND for Injection 150 mg infused over 20-30 minutes is administered on Day 1 only and can be substituted for the 3-day dosing regimen of EMEND for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by HEC.

In a randomized, parallel, double-blind, active-controlled study, EMEND for Injection 150 mg (N=1147) was compared with a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen (N=1175) (see Table 14 below) in patients receiving a highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen that included cisplatin ( ≥ 70 mg/m²). Patient demographics were similar between the two treatment groups. Of the total 2322 patients receiving EMEND for Injection or oral aprepitant, 63% were men, 56% White, 26% Asian, 3% American Indian/Alaska Native, 2% Black, 13% Multi-Racial, and 33% Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Patient ages ranged from 19 to 86 years of age, with a mean age of 56 years. Other concomitant chemotherapy agents were administered similar to those in prior HEC studies described above.

Table 14 : Treatment Regimens Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Trial*

  Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
CINV Fosaprepitant Regimen
  Fosaprepitant 150 mg intravenously none none none
  Dexamethasone 12 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally twice daily 8 mg orally twice daily
  5-HT3 antagonist† See package insert none none none
CINV Aprepitant Regimen
  Aprepitant 125 mg orally 80 mg orally 80 mg orally none
  Dexamethasone 12 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally
  5-HT3 antagonist† See package insert none none none
*Fosaprepitant placebo, aprepitant placebo and dexamethasone placebo (in the evenings on Days 3 and 4) were used to maintain blinding.
†Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. was used in the clinical trial of EMEND for Injection. Although this dose was used in the clinical trial, this is no longer the currently recommended dose. Refer to the ondansetron package insert for the current dosing.

The efficacy of fosaprepitant 150 mg was evaluated based on the primary and secondary endpoints listed in Table 15 below and was shown to be non-inferior to that of the 3-day oral aprepitant regimen with regard to complete response in each of the evaluated phases. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin for complete response in the overall phase was 7%. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin for complete response in the delayed phase was 7.3%. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin for no vomiting in the overall phase was 8.2%.

Table 15 : Percent of Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Responding by Treatment Group and Phase — Cycle 1

ENDPOINTS Fosaprepitant Regimen
(N = 1106)** %
Aprepitant Regimen
(N = 1134)** %
Difference† (95% CI)
PRIMARY ENDPOINT
Complete Response‡
  Overall§ 71.9 72.3 -0.4 (-4.1, 3.3)
SECONDARY ENDPOINTS
Complete Response‡
  Delayed phase§§ 74.3 74.2 0.1 (-3.5, 3.7)
No Vomiting
  Overall§ 72.9 74.6 -1.7 (-5.3, 2.0)
**N: Number of patients included in the primary analysis of complete response.
†Difference and Confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the method proposed by Miettinen and Nurminen and adjusted for Gender.
‡Complete Response = no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy.
§Overall = 0 to 120 hours post-initiation of cisplatin chemotherapy.
§§Delayed phase = 25 to 120 hours post-initiation of cisplatin chemotherapy.

Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy (MEC)

In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, clinical study in breast cancer patients, the aprepitant regimen (see Table 16) was compared with a standard of care therapy in patients receiving a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimen that included cyclophosphamide 750-1500 mg/m²; or cyclophosphamide 500-1500 mg/m² and doxorubicin ( ≥ 60 mg/m²) or epirubicin ( ≥ 100 mg/m²).

In this study, the most common combinations were cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin (60.6%); and cyclophosphamide + epirubicin + fluorouracil (21.6%).

Of the 438 patients who were randomized to receive the aprepitant regimen, 99.5% were women. Of these, approximately 80% were W hite, 8% Black, 8% Asian, 4% Hispanic, and < 1% Other. The aprepitant-treated patients in this clinical study ranged from 25 to 78 years of age, with a mean age of 53 years; 70 patients were 65 years or older, with 12 patients being over 74 years.

Patients (N = 866) were randomized to either the aprepitant regimen (N = 438) or standard therapy (N = 428). The treatment regimens are defined in Table 16.

Table 16 : Treatment Regimens Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy Trial*

  Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
CINV Aprepitant Regimen
  Aprepitant 125 mg orally** 80 mg orally 80 mg orally
  Dexamethasone 12 mg orally† none none
  Ondansetron 8 mg orally x 2 doses‡ none none
CINV Standard Therapy
  Dexamethasone 20 mg orally none none
  Ondansetron 8 mg orally x 2 doses 8 mg orally twice daily 8 mg orally twice daily
*Aprepitant placebo and dexamethasone placebo were used to maintain blinding.
**1 hour prior to chemotherapy.
†Dexamethasone was administered 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy treatment on Day 1.
‡Ondansetron was administered 30 to 60 minutes prior to chemotherapy treatment on Day 1 and 8 hours after first ondansetron dose.

The antiemetic activity of oral aprepitant was evaluated based on the following endpoints in which emetic episodes included vomiting, retching, or dry heaves:

Primary Endpoint

  • complete response (defined as no emetic episodes and no use of rescue therapy as recorded in patient diaries) in the overall phase (0 to 120 hours post-chemotherapy)

Other Prespecified Endpoints

  • no emesis (defined as no emetic episodes regardless of use of rescue therapy)
  • no nausea (maximum VAS < 5 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)
  • no significant nausea (maximum VAS < 25 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)
  • complete protection (defined as no emetic episodes, no use of rescue therapy, and a maximum nausea visual analogue scale [VAS] score < 25 mm on a 0 to 100 mm scale)
  • complete response during the acute and delayed phases.

A summary of the key results from this study is shown in Table 17.

Table 17 : Percent of Patients Receiving Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy Responding by Treatment Group and Phase — Cycle 1

ENDPOINTS Aprepitant Regimen
(N = 433)† %
Standard Therapy
(N = 424)† %
p-Value
PRIMARY ENDPOINT‡
  Complete Response 51 42 0.015
OTHER PRESPECIFIED ENDPOINTS‡
  No Emesis 76 59 NS*
  No Nausea 33 33 NS
  No Significant Nausea 61 56 NS
  No Rescue Therapy 59 56 NS
  Complete Protection 43 37 NS
†N: Number of patients included in the primary analysis of complete response.
‡Overall: 0 to 120 hours post-chemotherapy treatment.
*NS when adjusted for prespecified multiple comparisons rule; unadjusted p-value < 0.001.

In this study, a statistically significantly (p=0.015) higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen in Cycle 1 had a complete response (primary endpoint) during the overall phase compared with patients receiving standard therapy. The difference between treatment groups was primarily driven by the “No Emesis Endpoint”, a principal component of this composite primary endpoint. In addition, a higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen in Cycle 1 had a complete response during the acute (0-24 hours) and delayed (25-120 hours) phases compared with patients receiving standard therapy; however, the treatment group differences failed to reach statistical significance, after multiplicity adjustments.

Additional Patient-Reported Outcomes: In a phase 3 study in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, the impact of nausea and vomiting on patients' daily lives was assessed in Cycle 1 using the FLIE. A higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen reported minimal or no impact on daily life (64% versus 56%). This difference between treatment groups was primarily driven by the “No Vomiting Domain” of this composite endpoint.

Multiple-Cycle Extension: Patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy were permitted to continue into the Multiple-Cycle extension of the study for up to 3 additional cycles of chemotherapy. Antiemetic effect for patients receiving the aprepitant regimen is maintained during all cycles.

Postmarketing Trial: In a postmarketing, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, clinical study in 848 cancer patients, the aprepitant regimen (N=430) was compared with a standard of care therapy (N=418) in patients receiving a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimen that included any IV dose of oxaliplatin, carboplatin, epirubicin, idarubicin, ifosfamide, irinotecan, daunorubicin, doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide IV ( < 1500 mg/m²); or cytarabine IV ( > 1 g/m²).

Of the 430 patients who were randomized to receive the aprepitant regimen, 76% were women and 24% were men. The distribution by race was 67% White, 6% Black or African American, 11% Asian, and 12% multiracial. Classified by ethnicity, 36% were Hispanic and 64% were non-Hispanic. The aprepitanttreated patients in this clinical study ranged from 22 to 85 years of age, with a mean age of 57 years; approximately 59% of the patients were 55 years or older with 32 patients being over 74 years. Patients receiving the aprepitant regimen were receiving chemotherapy for a variety of tumor types including 50% with breast cancer, 21% with gastrointestinal cancers including colorectal cancer, 13% with lung cancer and 6% with gynecological cancers.

The antiemetic activity of EMEND was evaluated based on no vomiting (with or without rescue therapy) in the overall period (0 to 120 hours post-chemotherapy) and complete response (defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy) in the overall period.

A summary of the key results from this study is shown in Table 18.

Table 18 : Percent of Patients Receiving Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy Responding by Treatment Group for Study 2 — Cycle 1

ENDPOINTS Aprepitant Regimen
(N = 430)† %
Standard Therapy
(N = 418)† %
p-Value
No Vomiting Overall 76 62 < 0.0001
Complete Response Overall 69 56 0.0003
†N = Number of patients who received chemotherapy treatment, study drug, and had at least one post-treatment efficacy evaluation.

In this study, a statistically significantly higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen (76%) in Cycle 1 had no vomiting during the overall phase compared with patients receiving standard therapy (62%). In addition, a higher proportion of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen (69%) in Cycle 1 had a complete response in the overall phase (0-120 hours) compared with patients receiving standard therapy (56%). In the acute phase (0 to 24 hours following initiation of chemotherapy), a higher proportion of patients receiving aprepitant compared to patients receiving standard therapy were observed to have no vomiting (92% and 84%, respectively) and complete response (89% and 80%, respectively). In the delayed phase (25 to 120 hours following initiation of chemotherapy), a higher proportion of patients receiving aprepitant compared to patients receiving standard therapy were observed to have no vomiting (78% and 67%, respectively) and complete response (71% and 61%, respectively).

In a subgroup analysis by tumor type, a numerically higher proportion of patients receiving aprepitant were observed to have no vomiting and complete response compared to patients receiving standard therapy. For gender, the difference in complete response rates between the aprepitant and standard regimen groups was 14% in females (64.5% and 50.3%, respectively) and 4% in males (82.2% and 78.2%, respectively) during the overall phase. A similar difference for gender was observed for the no vomiting endpoint.

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/27/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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