"Immunoscore â€” a scoring system to determine specific lymphocyte populations in the core of the tumor and at its invasive margins â€” is emerging as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC), according to researchers.
A new study sh"...
Clinically Significant CYP3A4 Drug Interactions
Fosaprepitant, a prodrug of aprepitant, is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4, and aprepitant is a substrate, inhibitor, and inducer of CYP3A4.
- Use of EMEND with other drugs
that are CYP3A4 substrates, may result in increased plasma concentration of the
- Use of pimozide with EMEND is contraindicated due to the risk of significantly increased plasma concentrations of pimozide, potentially resulting in prolongation of the QT interval, a known adverse reaction of pimozide [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- Use of EMEND with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, diltiazem) may increase plasma concentrations of aprepitant and result in an increased risk of adverse reactions related to EMEND.
- Use of EMEND with strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may result in a reduction in aprepitant plasma concentrations and decreased efficacy of EMEND.
See Table 5 and Table 6 for a listing of potentially significant drug interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Hypersensitivity reactions during infusion of fosaprepitant including flushing, erythema, dyspnea, and anaphylaxis have been reported. If symptoms occur, discontinue the infusion and administer appropriate medical therapy. Do not reinitiate the infusion in patients who experience these symptoms during first-time use.
Decrease In INR With Concomitant Warfarin
Coadministration of EMEND with warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, may result in a clinically significant decrease in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) of prothrombin time [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Monitor the INR in patients on chronic warfarin therapy in the 2-week period, particularly at 7 to 10 days, following initiation of EMEND with each chemotherapy cycle [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of Reduced Efficacy Of Hormonal Contraceptives
Upon coadministration with EMEND, the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced during administration of and for 28 days following the last dose of EMEND [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Advise patients to use effective alternative or back-up methods of contraception during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following administration of EMEND [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Use in Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Hypersensitivity and Infusion Site Reactions
Advise patients that hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported in patients taking EMEND. Advise patients to stop taking EMEND and seek immediate medical attention if they experience signs or symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction, such as hives, rash and itching, skin peeling or sores, or difficulty in breathing or swallowing. Advise patients who develop an infusion site reaction such as erythema, edema, pain, or thrombophlebitis on how to care for the local reaction and when to seek further evaluation.
Advise patients to discuss all medications they are taking, including other prescription, nonprescription medication or herbal products [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Warfarin: Instruct patients on chronic warfarin therapy to follow instructions from their healthcare provider regarding blood draws to monitor their INR during the 2-week period, particularly at 7 to 10 days, following initiation of EMEND with each chemotherapy cycle [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hormonal Contraceptives: Advise patients that administration of EMEND may reduce the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives. Instruct patients to use effective alternative or back-up methods of contraception (such as condoms and spermicides) during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following administration of EMEND [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats and in CD-1 mice for 2 years. In the rat carcinogenicity studies, animals were treated with oral doses ranging from 0.05 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily. The highest dose produced systemic exposures to aprepitant approximately equivalent to (female rats) or less than (male rats) the human exposure at the RHD of 150 mg. Treatment with aprepitant at doses of 5 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily caused an increase in the incidences of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. In female rats, it produced hepatocellular adenomas at 5 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily and hepatocellular carcinomas and thyroid follicular cell adenomas at 125 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily. In the mouse carcinogenicity studies, the animals were treated with oral doses ranging from 2.5 to 2000 mg/kg/day. The highest dose produced a systemic exposure approximately 2 times the human exposure at the RHD of 150 mg. Treatment with aprepitant produced skin fibrosarcomas at 125 and 500 mg/kg/day doses in male mice. Carcinogenicity studies were not conducted with fosaprepitant.
Aprepitant and fosaprepitant were not genotoxic in the Ames test, the human lymphoblastoid cell (TK6) mutagenesis test, the rat hepatocyte DNA strand break test, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosome aberration test and the mouse micronucleus test.
Impairment of Fertility
Fosaprepitant, when administered intravenously, is rapidly converted to aprepitant. In the fertility studies conducted with fosaprepitant and aprepitant, the highest systemic exposures to aprepitant were obtained following oral administration of aprepitant. Oral aprepitant did not affect the fertility or general reproductive performance of male or female rats at doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 1000 mg/kg twice daily (providing exposure in male rats lower than the exposure at the RHD of 150 mg and exposure in female rats approximately equivalent to the human exposure).
Use In Specific Populations
There are insufficient data on use of EMEND in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed in rats or rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis to systemic drug levels (AUC) approximately equivalent to the exposure at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits, aprepitant was administered during the period of organogenesis at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg twice daily (rats) and up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 mg/kg/day (rabbits). No embryofetal lethality or malformations were observed at any dose level in either species. The exposures (AUC) in pregnant rats at 1000 mg/kg twice daily and in pregnant rabbits at 125 mg/kg/day were approximately equivalent to the exposure at the RHD of 150 mg. Aprepitant crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits.
Lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of aprepitant in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Aprepitant is present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for EMEND and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from EMEND or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Upon administration of EMEND, the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Advise females of reproductive potential using hormonal contraceptives to use an effective alternative or back-up non-hormonal contraceptive (such as condoms and spermicides) during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following the last dose [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The safety and effectiveness of EMEND for injection have not been established in pediatric patients.
Of the 1649 adult cancer patients treated with intravenous EMEND in HEC and MEC clinicalstudies, 27% were aged 65 and over, while 5% were aged 75 and over. Other reported clinical experience with EMEND has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, use caution when dosing elderly patients as they have a greater frequency ofdecreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients With Hepatic Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of aprepitant in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those of healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9). There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score greater than 9). Therefore, additional monitoring for adverse reactions in these patients may be warranted when EMEND is administered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/16/2016
Additional Emend Injection Information
Emend Injection - User Reviews
Emend Injection User Reviews
Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get the latest treatment options.