Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Endometriosis facts
- What is endometriosis?
- Who is affected by endometriosis?
- What causes endometriosis?
- What are endometriosis symptoms?
- Endometriosis and cancer risk
- Does diet affect endometriosis?
- How is endometriosis diagnosed?
- How is endometriosis treated?
- Medical treatment of endometriosis
- Surgical treatment of endometriosis
- Treatment of infertility associated with endometriosis
- Endometriosis FAQs
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
- Endometriosis is the abnormal growth of cells (endometrial cells) similar to those that form the inside of the uterus, but in a location outside of the uterus. Endometriosis is most commonly found on other organs of the pelvis.
- The exact cause of endometriosis has not been identified.
- Endometriosis is more common in women who are experiencing infertility than in fertile women, but the condition does not necessarily cause infertility.
- Most women with endometriosis have no symptoms, however, when women do experience symptoms they may include:
- Pelvic pain that may worsen during menstruation
- Painful intercourse
- Painful bowel movements or urination
- Pelvic pain during menstruation or ovulation can be a symptom of endometriosis, but may also occur in normal women.
- Endometriosis can be suspected based on the woman's pattern of symptoms, and sometimes during a physical examination, but the definite diagnosis is confirmed by surgery, usually laparoscopy.
- Treatment of endometriosis includes medication and surgery for both pain relief and treatment of infertility if pregnancy is desired.
What is endometriosis?
Endometriosis is the abnormal growth of cells (endometrial cells) similar to those that form the inside or lining the tissue of the uterus, but in a location outside of the uterus. Endometrial cells are the lining cells of the uterus and are cells that are shed each month during menstruation. Endometriosis occurs when cells like the lining of the uterus grow in or on tissues outside the uterus; these areas are called endometriosis implants. These implants are most commonly found on the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, and on the surface lining of the pelvic cavity. They can also be found in the vagina, cervix, and bladder, although less commonly than other locations in the pelvis. Rarely, endometriosis implants can occur outside the pelvis, on the liver, in old surgery scars, and even in or around the lung or brain. Endometrial implants, while they can cause problems, are benign (not cancerous).
Who is affected by endometriosis?
Endometriosis affects women in their reproductive years. The exact prevalence of endometriosis is not known, since many women may have the condition and have no symptoms. Endometriosis is estimated to affect over one million women (estimates range from 3% to 18% of women) in the United States. It is one of the leading causes of pelvic pain and reasons for laparoscopic surgery and hysterectomy in this country. Estimates suggest that 20% to 50% of women being treated for infertility have endometriosis, and up to 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain may be affected.
While most cases of endometriosis are diagnosed in women aged around 25 to 35 years, endometriosis has been reported in girls as young as 11 years of age. Endometriosis is rare in postmenopausal women. Studies further suggest that endometriosis is most common in taller, thin women with a low body mass index (BMI). Delaying pregnancy until an older age, never giving birth, early onset of menses, and late menopause all have been shown to increase the risk of endometriosis. It also is likely that there are genetic factors that predispose a woman to developing endometriosis, since having a first-degree relative with the condition increases the chance that a woman will develop the condition.
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