"The European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended the marketing of selexipag (Uptravi, Actelion Registration Ltd) for the treatment of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)./"...
The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere:
- Angioedema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatic failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Enalapril has been evaluated for safety in more than 10,000 patients, including over 1,000 patients treated for one year or more.
Adverse reactions (where rate on enalapril exceeds the rate on placebo by at least 0.2%) occurring in greater than 1% of patients with hypertension treated with enalapril in controlled clinical trials are shown below. In patients treated with enalapril, the maximum duration of therapy was three years; in placebo treated patients, the maximum duration of therapy was 12 weeks.
Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater Than 1% of
Patients With Hypertension
|Enalapril Maleate Tablets
(n = 2314) Incidence (discontinuation)
(n = 230) Incidence
|Body As A Whole|
|Fatigue||3.0 ( < 0.1)||2.6|
|Orthostatic Effects||1.2 ( < 0.1)||0.0|
Adverse reactions seen in clinical trials of heart failure were similar to those seen in clinical trials for hypertension. In patients treated for heart failure, there was an increased incidence of hypotension 6.7 percent versus 0.6 percent in placebo and dizziness 7.9 percent versus 0.6 percent in placebo.
Other Adverse Reactions From Clinical Studies Or Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical studies or postmarketing experience with enalapril. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Other serious clinical adverse experiences occurring since the drug was marketed or adverse experiences occurring in 0.5 to 1.0% of patients with hypertension or heart failure in clinical trials are listed below and, within each category, are in order of decreasing severity.
Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]; pulmonary embolism and infarction; pulmonary edema; rhythm disturbances, including atrial tachycardia and bradycardia; atrial fibrillation; palpitation; Raynaud's phenomenon.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps.
Skin: Exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigus, herpes zoster, erythema multiforme, urticaria, pruritus, alopecia, flushing, diaphoresis, photosensitivity.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include some or all of the following: a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia/myositis, fever, serositis, vasculitis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, photosensitivity, dermatologic manifestations.
Read the Epaned (enalapril powder for oral solution) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including enalapril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving enalapril and NSAID therapy.
In a clinical pharmacology study, indomethacin or sulindac was administered to hypertensive patients receiving enalapril maleate. In this study, there was no evidence of a blunting of the antihypertensive action of enalapril maleate. However, reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors.
Dual Blockade Of The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)
Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. In most patients no benefit has been associated with using two RAS inhibitors concomitantly. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on EPANED and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with EPANED in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with EPANED in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min).
Agents Increasing Serum Potassium
EPANED attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to significant increases in serum potassium.
Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving enalapril and lithium concomitantly which was generally reversible. It is recommended that serum lithium levels be monitored frequently if enalapril is administered concomitantly with lithium.
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including enalapril.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/3/2016
Additional Epaned Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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