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Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue EPANED as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations].
Angioedema And Anaphylactoid Reactions
Head and Neck Angioedema
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx, including some fatal reactions, have occurred in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, including EPANED, at any time during treatment. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. EPANED should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms of angioedema has occurred.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients.
Patients receiving coadministration of ACE inhibitor and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Intestinal angioedema has occurred in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. In some cases, the angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions.
Anaphylactoid Reactions during Dialysis
Sudden and potentially life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in some patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In such patients, dialysis must be stopped immediately, and aggressive therapy for anaphylactoid reactions must be initiated. Symptoms have not been relieved by antihistamines in these situations. In these patients, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
EPANED can cause symptomatic hypotension, sometimes complicated by oliguria, progressive azotemia, acute renal failure or death. Patients at risk of excessive hypotension include those with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure with systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology.
In these patients, EPANED should be started under very close medical supervision and such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of EPANED and/or diuretic is increased.
In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, EPANED may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be through this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.
Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis, and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.
Impaired Renal Function
Monitor renal function in patients treated with EPANED. Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on EPANED. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on EPANED [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Serum potassium should be monitored in patients receiving EPANED. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
There was no evidence of a tumorigenic effect when enalapril was administered for 106 weeks to male and female rats at doses up to 90 mg/kg/day or for 94 weeks to male and female mice at doses up to 90 and 180 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are 26 times (in rats and female mice) and 13 times (in male mice) the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHDD) when compared on a body surface area basis.
Neither enalapril maleate nor the active diacid was mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation. Enalapril was also negative in the following genotoxicity studies: rec-assay, reverse mutation assay with E. coli, sister chromatid exchange with cultured mammalian cells, and the micronucleus test with mice, as well as in an in vivo cytogenic study using mouse bone marrow.
There were no adverse effects on reproductive performance of male and female rats treated with up to 90 mg/kg/day of enalapril (26 times the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis).
Use In Specific Populations
EPANED can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue EPANED as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) are unknown. In the general U.S. population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Adverse Reactions In The Fetus Or In Neonates With A History Of In Utero Exposure To Enalapril Maleate
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, oligohydramnios, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydraminos may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to EPANED for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs in neonates with a history of in utero exposure to EPANED, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function.
Enalapril and enalaprilat have been detected in human breast milk. Because of the potential for severe adverse reactions in the breastfed infant, including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with EPANED.
Neonates With A History Of In Utero Exposure To Enalapril Maleate
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Enalapril, which crosses the placenta, has been removed from neonatal circulation by peritoneal dialysis with some clinical benefit, and theoretically may be removed by exchange transfusion, although there is no experience with the latter procedure.
Pediatric Patients With Hypertension
EPANED is not recommended in neonates (i.e., infants 1 month of age or less), preterm infants who have not reached a corrected post-conceptual age of 44 weeks, and in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m²[see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Enalapril lowers blood pressure in hypertensive pediatric patients age 6 years to 16 years. Use of enalapril in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of enalapril in pediatric and adult patients as well as by published literature in pediatric patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Clinical efficacy studies of enalapril in pediatric patients with hypertension did not enroll patients less than 6 years of age. In a previous clinical study in pediatric patients between 2 months and 6 years of age, a higher weight-based dose was required to match exposure in children aged 6 to 16 years [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
It is unknown whether post-natal use of ACE inhibitors such as enalapril before maturation of renal function is complete has long-term deleterious effects on the kidney. In humans, nephrogenesis is thought to be complete around birth; however maturation of other aspects of kidney function (such as glomerular filtration and tubular function) may continue until approximately 2 years of age [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Pediatric Patients With Heart Failure Or Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Dysfunction
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
ACE inhibitors, including EPANED, as monotherapy have an effect on blood pressure that is less in Black patients than in non-Blacks.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/3/2016
Additional Epaned Information
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