(EPO) & The EPO Test
Siamak T. Nabili, MD, MPH
Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- What is erythropoietin (EPO)?
- Chemically, what is erythropoietin (EPO)?
- What exactly does erythropoietin (EPO) do?
- Is the kidney the sole source of erythropoietin (EPO)?
- Why is an erythropoietin (EPO) test performed?
- How is the erythropoietin (EPO) test performed?
- What are normal erythropoietin (EPO) levels?
- What does an abnormal erythropoietin (EPO) level indicate?
- Can person without a medical disease or condition have a high erythropoietin (EPO) level?
- Is erythropoietin (EPO) available as a prescribed medication?
- What are the clinical uses of erythropoietin (EPO)?
- Erythropoietin (EPO) At A Glance
What is erythropoietin?
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
The kidney cells that make erythropoietin are specialized so that they are sensitive to low oxygen levels in the blood that travels through the kidney. These cells make and release erythropoietin when the oxygen level is too low. The low oxygen level may indicate anemia, a diminished number of red blood cells, or hemoglobin molecules that carry oxygen through the body.
Chemically, what is erythropoietin (EPO)?
Erythropoietin is a protein with an attached sugar (a glycoprotein). It is one of a number of similar glycoproteins that serve as stimulants for the growth of specific types of blood cells in the bone marrow.
What exactly does erythropoietin (EPO) do?
Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. The resultant rise in red cells increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
As the prime regulator of red cell production, erythropoietin's major functions are to:
- Promote the development of red blood cells.
- Initiate the synthesis of hemoglobin, the molecule within red blood cells that transports oxygen.
Is the kidney the sole source of erythropoietin?
No. Erythropoietin is produced to a lesser extent by the liver. Only about 10% of the erythropoietin is produced in the liver. The erythropoietin gene has been found on human chromosome 7 (in band 7q21). Different DNA sequences flanking the erythropoietin gene act to control liver versus kidney production of erythropoietin.
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