Esophageal Cancer (cont.)
In this Article
- Esophageal cancer facts*
- What is the esophagus?
- What is cancer?
- What are the types of esophageal cancer?
- What is a tumor grade test?
- What tests are used to determine the stage of esophageal cancer?
- What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
- Stages I and II of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
- Stages I and II of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus
- Stages III and IV of esophageal cancer (both types)
- What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
- What doctors treat esophageal cancer?
- Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
- Radiation Therapy
- Targeted Therapy
- What follow-up care is necessary during recovery after esophageal cancer treatment?
- Where can people with esophageal cancer find support?
- What research is being done on esophageal cancer?
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What is the esophagus?
The esophagus is a muscular tube in the chest. It's about 10 inches (25 centimeters) long.
This organ is part of the digestive tract. Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach.
The wall of the esophagus has several layers:
- Inner layer or lining: The lining (mucosa) of the esophagus is wet, which helps food to pass to the stomach.
- Submucosa: Glands in the submucosa layer make mucus, which helps keep the lining of the esophagus wet.
- Muscle layer: The muscles push the food down to the stomach.
- Outer layer: The outer layer covers the esophagus.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up all tissues and organs of the body, including the esophagus.
Normal cells in the esophagus and other parts of the body grow and divide to form new cells as they are needed. When normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesn't need them, and old or damaged cells don't die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
A tumor in the esophagus can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer):
- Benign tumors:
- Are rarely a threat to life
- Don't invade the tissues around them
- Don't spread to other parts of the body
- Can be removed and don't usually grow back
- Malignant tumors (cancer of the esophagus):
- May be a threat to life
- Can invade and damage nearby organs and tissues
- Can spread to other parts of the body
- Sometimes can be removed but may grow back
Esophageal cancer cells can spread by breaking away from an esophageal tumor. They can travel through blood vessels or lymph vessels to reach other parts of the body. After spreading, cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues.
When esophageal cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the original tumor. For example, if esophageal cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually esophageal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic esophageal cancer, not liver cancer. For that reason, it is treated as cancer of the esophagus, not liver cancer.
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