October 14, 2015
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Esophageal Cancer (cont.)

Staging Tests

Staging tests can show the stage (extent) of esophageal cancer, such as whether cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.

When cancer of the esophagus spreads, cancer cells are often found in nearby lymph nodes. Esophageal cancer cells can spread from the esophagus to almost any other part of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones.

Staging tests may include...

  • CT scan: Your doctor may order a CT scan of your chest and abdomen. An x-ray machine linked to a computer will take a series of detailed pictures of these areas. You'll receive contrast material by mouth and by injection into a blood vessel in your arm or hand. The contrast material makes abnormal areas easier to see. The pictures can show cancer that has spread to the liver, lungs, bones, or other organs.
  • PET scan: Your doctor may use a PET scan to find cancer that has spread. You'll receive an injection of a small amount of radioactive sugar. A machine makes computerized pictures of the sugar being used by cells in the body. Because cancer cells use sugar faster than normal cells, areas with cancer cells look brighter on the pictures. The pictures can show cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes, liver, or other organs.
  • EUS: An EUS (endoscopic ultrasound) can show how deeply the cancer has invaded the wall of the esophagus. It can also show whether cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Your doctor will pass a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) through your mouth to your esophagus. A probe at the end of the tube sends out high-energy sound waves. The waves bounce off tissues in your esophagus and nearby organs, and a computer creates a picture from the echoes. During the exam, the doctor may take tissue samples of lymph nodes.


Doctors describe the stages of esophageal cancer using the Roman numerals I, II, III, and IV. Stage I is early-stage cancer, and Stage IV is advanced cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver.

The stage of cancer of the esophagus depends mainly on...

  • How deeply the tumor has invaded the wall of the esophagus
  • The tumor's location (upper, middle, or lower esophagus)
  • Whether esophageal cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body

Source: MedicineNet.com


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