"Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have found a unique cell type that, in tests on mice, can protect against uveitis—a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the eye and can cause vision loss.
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Endophthalmitis And Retinal Detachments
Intravitreal injections, including those with EYLEA, have been associated with endophthalmitis and retinal detachments [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Proper aseptic injection technique must always be used when administering EYLEA. Patients should be instructed to report any symptoms suggestive of endophthalmitis or retinal detachment without delay and should be managed appropriately [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Increase In Intraocular Pressure
Acute increases in intraocular pressure have been seen within 60 minutes of intravitreal injection, including with EYLEA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Sustained increases in intraocular pressure have also been reported after repeated intravitreal dosing with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Intraocular pressure and the perfusion of the optic nerve head should be monitored and managed appropriately [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
There is a potential risk of arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs) following intravitreal use of VEGF inhibitors, including EYLEA. ATEs are defined as nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or vascular death (including deaths of unknown cause). The incidence of reported thromboembolic events in wet AMD studies during the first year was 1.8% (32 out of 1824) in the combined group of patients treated with EYLEA. The incidence in the DME studies from baseline to week 52 was 3.3% (19 out of 578) in the combined group of patients treated with EYLEA compared with 2.8% (8 out of 287) in the control group; from baseline to week 100, the incidence was 6.4% (37 out of 578) in the combined group of patients treated with EYLEA compared with 4.2% (12 out of 287) in the control group. There were no reported thromboembolic events in the patients treated with EYLEA in the first six months of the RVO studies.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No studies have been conducted on the mutagenic or carcinogenic potential of aflibercept. Effects on male and female fertility were assessed as part of a 6-month study in monkeys with intravenous administration of aflibercept at weekly doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg per kg. Absent or irregular menses associated with alterations in female reproductive hormone levels and changes in sperm morphology and motility were observed at all dose levels. In addition, females showed decreased ovarian and uterine weight accompanied by compromised luteal development and reduction of maturing follicles. These changes correlated with uterine and vaginal atrophy. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was not identified. Intravenous administration of the lowest dose of aflibercept assessed in monkeys (3 mg per kg) resulted in systemic exposure (AUC) that was approximately 1500 times higher than the systemic exposure observed in humans after an intravitreal dose of 2 mg. All changes were reversible within 20 weeks after cessation of treatment.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Aflibercept produced embryo-fetal toxicity when administered every three days during organogenesis to pregnant rabbits at intravenous doses ≥ 3 mg per kg, or every six days at subcutaneous doses ≥ 0.1 mg per kg. Adverse embryo-fetal effects included increased incidences of postimplantation loss and fetal malformations, including anasarca, umbilical hernia, diaphragmatic hernia, gastroschisis, cleft palate, ectrodactyly, intestinal atresia, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, heart and major vessel defects, and skeletal malformations (fused vertebrae, sternebrae, and ribs; supernumerary vertebral arches and ribs; and incomplete ossification). The maternal No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in these studies was 3 mg per kg. Aflibercept produced fetal malformations at all doses assessed in rabbits and the fetal NOAEL was less than 0.1 mg per kg. Administration of the lowest dose assessed in rabbits (0.1 mg per kg) resulted in systemic exposure (AUC) that was approximately 10 times the systemic exposure observed in humans after an intravitreal dose of 2 mg.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. EYLEA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is unknown whether aflibercept is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, a risk to the breastfed child cannot be excluded. EYLEA is not recommended during breastfeeding. A decision must be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue treatment with EYLEA, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of EYLEA in pediatric patients have not been established.
In the clinical studies, approximately 76% (2049/2701) of patients randomized to treatment with EYLEA were ≥ 65 years of age and approximately 46% (1250/2701) were ≥ 75 years of age. No significant differences in efficacy or safety were seen with increasing age in these studies.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/8/2015
Additional Eylea Information
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