"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a quarterly injection form of paliperidone (Invega Trinza, Janssen Pharmaceuticals) for schizophrenia, the company announced today.
Janssen Pharmaceuticals already markets a "...
Mechanism Of Action
The mechanism of action of iloperidone in schizophrenia is unknown. However the efficacy of iloperidone could be mediated through a combination of dopamine type 2 (D2) and serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) antagonism. Iloperidone forms an active metabolite, P88, that has an in vitro receptor binding profile similar to the parent drug.
Iloperidone acts as an antagonist with high (nM) affinity binding to serotonin 5-HT2A dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, and norepinephrine NE∞1 receptors (Ki values of 5.6, 6.3, 7.1, and 0.36 nM, respectively). Iloperidone has moderate affinity for dopamine D4, and serotonin 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors (Ki values of 25, 43, and 22, nM respectively), and low affinity for the serotonin 5-HT1A, dopamine D1, and histamine H1 receptors (Ki values of 168, 216 and 437 nM, respectively). Iloperidone has no appreciable affinity (Ki>1000 nM) for cholinergic muscarinic receptors. The affinit y of iloperidone metabolite P88 is generally equal to or less than that of the parent compound, while the metabolite P95 only shows affinity for 5-HT2A (Ki value of 3.91) and the NE∞1A, NE∞1B, NE∞1D, and NE∞2C receptors (Ki values of 4.7, 2.7, 8.8 and 4.7 nM respectively).
The observed mean elimination half-lives for iloperidone, P88 and P95 in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) are 18, 26, and 23 hours, respectively, and in poor metabolizers (PM) are 33, 37 and 31 hours, respectively. Steady-state concentrations are attained within 3 -4 days of dosing. Iloperidone accumulation is predictable from single-dose pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetics of iloperidone is more than dose proportional. Elimination of iloperidone is mainly through hepatic metabolism involving 2 P450 isozymes, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
Absorption: Iloperidone is well absorbed after administration of the tablet with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 2 to 4 hours; while the relative bioavailability of the tablet formulation compared to oral solution is 96%. Administration of iloperidone with a standard high-fat meal did not significantly affect the Cmax or AUC of iloperidone, P88, or P95, but delayed Tmax by 1 hour for iloperidone, 2 hours for P88 and 6 hours for P95. FANAPT can be administered without regard to meals.
Distribution: Iloperidone has an apparent clearance (clearance / bioavailability) of 47 to 102 L/h, with an apparent volume of distribution of 1340-2800 L. At therapeutic concentrations, the unbound fraction of iloperidone in plasma is ˜3% and of each metabolite (P88 and P95) it is ˜8%.
Metabolism and Elimination: Iloperidone is metabolized primarily by 3 biotransformation pathways: carbonyl reduction, hydroxylation (mediated by CYP2D6) and O-demethylation (mediated by CYP3A4). There are 2 predominant iloperidone metabolites, P95 and P88. The iloperidone metabolite P95 represents 47.9% of the AUC of iloperidone and its metabolites in plasma at steady-state for extensive metabolizers (EM) and 25% for poor metabolizers (PM). The active metabolite P88 accounts for 19.5% and 34.0% of total plasma exposure in EM and PM, respectively.
Approximately 7% -10% of Caucasians and 3% -8% of black/African Americans lack the capacity to metabolize CYP2D6 substrates and are classified as poor metabolizers (PM), whereas the rest are intermediate, extensive or ultrarapid metabolizers. Coadministration of FANAPT with known strong inhibitors of CYP2D6 like fluoxetine results in a 2.3-fold increase in iloperidone plasma exposure, and therefore one-half of the FANAPT dose should be administered.
Similarly, PMs of CYP2D6 have higher exposure to iloperidone compared with EMs and PMs should have their dose reduced by one-half. Laboratory tests are available to identify CYP2D6 PMs.
The bulk of the radioactive materials were recovered in the urine (mean 58.2% and 45.1% in EM and PM, respectively), with feces accounting for 19.9% (EM) to 22.1% (PM) of the dosed radioactivity.
Transporter Interaction: Iloperidone and P88 are not substrates of P-gp and iloperidone is a weak P-gp inhibitor.
The efficacy of FANAPT in the treatment of schizophrenia was supported by 2 placebo-and active-controlled short-term (4-and 6-week) trials and one long-term placebo-controlled randomized withdrawal trial. All trials enrolled patients who met the DSM-III/IV criteria for schizophrenia.
Three instruments were used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms in these studies. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) are both multi-item inventories of general psychopathology usually used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment in schizophrenia. The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) assessment reflects the impression of a skilled observer, fully familiar with the manifestations of schizophrenia, about the overall clinical state of the patient.
A 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=706) involved 2 flexible dose ranges of FANAPT (12-16 mg/day or 2024 mg/day) compared to placebo and an active control (risperidone). For the 12-16 mg/day group, the titration schedule of FANAPT was 1 mg twice daily on Days 1 and 2, 2 mg twice daily on Days 3 and 4, 4 mg twice daily on Days 5 and 6, and 6 mg twice daily on Day 7. For the 20-24 mg/day group, the titration schedule of FANAPT was 1 mg twice daily on Day 1, 2 mg twice daily on Day 2, 4 mg twice daily on Day 3, 6 mg twice daily on Days 4 and 5, 8 mg twice daily on Day 6, and 10 mg twice daily on Day 7. The primary endpoint was change from baseline on the BPRS total score at the end of treatment (Day 42). Both the 12-16 mg/day and the 20-24 mg/day dose ranges of FANAPT were superior to placebo on the BPRS total score. The active control antipsychotic drug appeared to be superior to FANAPT in this trial within the first 2 weeks, a finding that may in part be explained by the more rapid titration that was possible for that drug. In patients in this study who remained on treatment for at least 2 weeks, iloperidone appeared to have had comparable efficacy to the active control.
A 4-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=604) involved one fixed dose of FANAPT (24 mg/day) compared to placebo and an active control (ziprasidone). The titration schedule for this study was similar to that for the 6week
study. This study involved titration of FANAPT starting at 1 mg twice daily on Day 1 and increasing to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg twice daily on Days 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The primary endpoint was change from baseline on the PANSS total score at the end of treatment (Day 28). The 24 mg/day FANAPT dose was superior to placebo in the PANSS total score. FANAPT appeared to have similar efficacy to the active control drug which also needed a slow titration to the target dose.
In a longer-term trial, clinically stable adult outpatients (n=303) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia who remained stable following 12 weeks of open-label treatment with flexible doses of FANAPT (8 mg/day – 24 mg/day administered as twice daily doses) were randomized to placebo or to continue on their current FANAPT dose (8 mg/day – 24 mg/day administered as twice daily doses) for observation for possible relapse during the double-blind relapse prevention phase. Stabilization during the open-label phase was defined as being on an established dose of FANAPT that was unchanged due to efficacy in the 4 weeks prior to randomization, having CGI-Severity score of ≤4 and PANSS total score ≤70, a score of ≤4 on each of the following individual PANSS items (P1-delusions, P2-conceptual disorganization, P3-hallucinatory behavior, P6-suspiciousness/persecution, P7-hostility, or G8-uncooperativeness), and no hospitalization or increase in level of care to treat exacerbations. Relapse or impending relapse during the double-blind relapse prevention phase was defined as any of the following: hospitalization due to worsening of schizophrenia, increase (worsening) of the PANSS total score ≥30%, CGI-Improvement score ≥6, patient had suicidal, homicidal, or aggressive behavior, or need for any other antipsychotic medication.
Figure 1: Kaplan Meier Estimation of Percent Relapse/Impending Relapse for iloperidone (Ilo) and placebo (Pbo)
Based on the interim analysis, an independent data monitoring committee decided the study should be discontinued early due to evidence of efficacy. Based on results from the interim analysis, which were confirmed by the final analysis dataset, patients treated with FANAPT experienced a statistically significant longer time to relapse or impending relapse than patients who received placebo. Figure 1 displays the estimated cumulative proportion of patients with relapse or impending relapse based on the final data set.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/28/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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