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Details with Side Effects
The safety and pharmacokinetics of FASLODEX were evaluated in a study in seven subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) and seven subjects with normal hepatic function. Exposure was increased in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, therefore a dose of 250 mg is recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
FASLODEX has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see Use In Specific Populations].
Use in Pregnancy
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, FASLODEX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Fulvestrant caused fetal loss or abnormalities in animals when administered during the period of organogenesis at doses significantly smaller than the maximum recommended human dose based on the body surface area. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using FASLODEX. Women of childbearing potential should be advised not to become pregnant while receiving FASLODEX. If FASLODEX is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling
Women of childbearing potential should be advised not to become pregnant while receiving FASLODEX. FASLODEX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [seeWARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
Because FASLODEX is administered intramuscularly, it should be used with caution in patients with bleeding disorders, decreased platelet count, or in patients receiving anticoagulants (for example, warfarin) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
A two-year carcinogenesis study was conducted in female and male rats, at intramuscular doses of 15 mg/kg/30 days, 10 mg/rat/30 days and 10 mg/rat/15 days.
These doses correspond to 0.9-, 1.5-, and 3-fold (in females) and 0.8-, 0.8-, and 2-fold (in males) the systemic exposure [AUC0-30 days] achieved in women receiving the recommended dose of 500 mg/month. An increased incidence of benign ovarian granulosa cell tumors and testicular Leydig cell tumors was evident, in females dosed at 10 mg/rat/15 days and males dosed at 15 mg/rat/30 days, respectively. Induction of such tumors is consistent with the pharmacology-related endocrine feedback alterations in gonadotropin levels caused by an antiestrogen.
Fulvestrant was not mutagenic or clastogenic in multiple in vitro tests with and without the addition of a mammalian liver metabolic activation factor (bacterial mutation assay in strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, in vitro cytogenetics study in human lymphocytes, mammalian cell mutation assay in mouse lymphoma cells and in vivo micronucleus test in rat).
In female rats, fulvestrant administered at doses ≥ 0.01 mg/kg/day (0.6% the human recommended dose based on body surface area [BSA]), for 2 weeks prior to and for 1 week following mating, caused a reduction in fertility and embryonic survival. No adverse effects on female fertility and embryonic survival were evident in female animals dosed at 0.001 mg/kg/day (0.06% the human dose based on BSA). Restoration of female fertility to values similar to controls was evident following a 29-day withdrawal period after dosing at 2 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the human dose based on BSA). The effects of fulvestrant on the fertility of female rats appear to be consistent with its antiestrogenic activity. The potential effects of fulvestrant on the fertility of male animals were not studied but, in a 6-month toxicology study, male rats treated with intramuscular doses of 15 mg/kg/30 days, 10 mg/rat/30 days, or 10 mg/rat/15 days fulvestrant showed a loss of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubular atrophy, and degenerative changes in the epididymides. Changes in the testes and epididymides had not recovered 20 weeks after cessation of dosing. These fulvestrant doses correspond to 1.3-, 1.2- and 3.5-fold the systemic exposure [AUC0-30 days] achieved in women receiving the recommended dose of 500 mg/month.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] FASLODEX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Fulvestrant caused fetal loss or abnormalities in animals when administered during the period of organogenesis at doses significantly smaller than the maximum recommended human dose based on the body surface area (BSA). Women of childbearing potential should be advised not to become pregnant while receiving FASLODEX. If FASLODEX is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
In studies in female rats at intramuscular doses ≥ 0.01 mg/kg/day (0.6% of the human recommended dose based on BSA), fulvestrant caused a reversible reduction in female fertility, as well as effects on embryo-fetal development consistent with its antiestrogenic activity. Fulvestrant caused an increased incidence of fetal abnormalities in rats (tarsal flexure of the hind paw at 2 mg/kg/day; equivalent to the human dose based on BSA) and non-ossification of the odontoid and ventral tubercle of the first cervical vertebra at doses ≥ 0.1 mg/kg/day (6% the human dose based on BSA) when administered during the period of organogenesis. Rabbits failed to maintain pregnancy when dosed intramuscularly with 1 mg/kg/day fulvestrant (equivalent to the human dose based on BSA) during the period of organogenesis. Further, in rabbits dosed at 0.25 mg/kg/day (30% the human dose based on BSA), increases in placental weight and post-implantation loss were observed. Fulvestrant was associated with an increased incidence of fetal variations in rabbits (backwards displacement of the pelvic girdle, and 27 pre-sacral vertebrae at 0.25 mg/kg/day; 30% the human dose based on BSA) when administered during the period of organogenesis. Because pregnancy could not be maintained in the rabbit following doses of fulvestrant of 1 mg/kg/day and above, this study was inadequate to fully define the possible adverse effects on fetal development at clinically relevant exposures.
It is not known if fulvestrant is excreted in human milk. Fulvestrant is found in rat milk at levels significantly higher (approximately 12-fold) than plasma after administration of 2 mg/kg. Drug exposure in rodent pups from fulvestrant-treated lactating dams was estimated as 10% of the administered dose. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from FASLODEX, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
A multi-center, single-arm, open-label, study of fulvestrant was conducted in 30 girls with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) associated with progressive precocious puberty (PPP). The median age at informed consent was 6 years old (range: 1 to 8).
The first 10 patients initially received fulvestrant 2 mg/kg. Based on PK data from the first 6 patients, all 10 patients receiving 2 mg/kg were escalated to a dose of 4 mg/kg and all other patients received 4 mg/kg from study entry.
Baseline measurements for vaginal bleeding days, bone age, growth velocity, and Tanner staging for at least 6 months prior to study entry were provided retrospectively by the parent, guardian or local consultant. All measurements during the study period were collected prospectively. Patients' baseline characteristics included the following: a mean ± SD chronological age of 5.9 ± 1.8 years; a mean rate of bone age advancement (change in bone age in years divided by change in chronological age in years) of 2.0 ± 1.03; and a mean growth velocity z-score of 2.4 ± 3.26.
Twenty-nine of 30 patients completed the 12-month study period. The following results were observed: 35% (95% CI: 16%, 57%) of the 23 patients with baseline vaginal bleeding experienced a complete cessation of vaginal bleeding on-treatment (month 0 to 12); a reduction in the rate of bone age advancement during the 12-month study period compared to baseline (mean change = -0.9 [95% CI = -1.4, -0.4]); and a reduction in mean growth velocity Z-score on-treatment compared to baseline (mean change = -1.1 [95% CI = -2.7, 0.4]). There were no clinically meaningful changes in median Tanner stage (breast or pubic), mean uterine volume, or mean ovarian volume, or predicted adult height (PAH) on-treatment compared to baseline. The effect of Faslodex on bone mineral density in children has not been studied and is not known.
Eight patients (27%) experienced adverse reactions that were considered possibly related to Faslodex. These included injection site reactions (inflammation, pain, hematoma, pruritis, rash), abdominal pain, contusion, tachycardia, hot flush, extremity pain, and vomiting. Nine (30.0%) patients reported an SAE, none of which were considered related to Faslodex. No patients discontinued study treatment due to an AE and no patients died.
The pharmacokinetics of fulvestrant was characterized using a population pharmacokinetic analysis with sparse samples per patient obtained from 30 female pediatric patients aged 1 to 8 years with PPP associated with MAS. Pharmacokinetic data from 294 postmenopausal women with breast cancer who received 125 or 250 mg monthly dosing regimen were also included in the analysis.
In these pediatric patients receiving 4 mg/kg monthly intramuscular dose of fulvestrant, the geometric mean (SD) CL/F was 444 (165) mL/min which was 32% lower than adults. The geometric mean (SD) steady state trough concentration (Cmin,ss) and AUCss was 4.19 (0. 87) ng/mL and 3680 (1020) ng*hr/mL, respectively.
For FASLODEX 250 mg, when tumor response was considered by age, objective responses were seen in 22% and 24% of patients under 65 years of age and in 11% and 16% of patients 65 years of age and older, who were treated with FASLODEX in Study 2 and Study 3, respectively.
FASLODEX is metabolized primarily in the liver.
The pharmacokinetics of fulvestrant were evaluated after a single dose of 100 mg in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment and normal hepatic function (n = 7 subjects/group), using a shorter-acting intramuscular injection formulation. Subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A) had comparable mean AUC and clearance values to those with normal hepatic function. In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) the average AUC of fulvestrant increased by 70% compared to patients with normal hepatic function. AUC was positively correlated with total bilirubin concentration (p = 0.012). FASLODEX has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).
A dose of FASLODEX 250 mg is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Negligible amounts of fulvestrant are eliminated in urine; therefore, a study in patients with renal impairment was not conducted. In the advanced breast cancer trials, fulvestrant concentrations in women with estimated creatinine clearance as low as 30 mL/min were similar to women with normal creatinine.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/3/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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