Fatty Liver (cont.)
In this Article
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver facts
- What are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis?
- Why is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease important?
- What causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
- What is the difference between nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis?
- What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes?
- What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome?
- What are the symptoms of fatty liver?
- How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed?
- What are the other causes of fatty liver?
- What are the complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
- How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease treated?
- Weight loss and exercise
- Medications and other treatment options
- Bariatric surgery
- Liver transplant
- What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease?
- What diseases are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
- Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occur in children?
- Find a local Gastroenterologist in your town
Medications and other treatment options
Metformin (Glucophage) is a drug used for treating diabetes. It works by increasing the insulin sensitivity of cells, directly counteracting the insulin resistance that accompanies NAFLD as well as the metabolic syndrome. It has been studied but, unfortunately, has not been found to improve the liver injury associated with NASH.
Pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) are drugs that also are used for treating diabetes because they increase insulin sensitivity. There has been a reduction in liver fat and signs of liver injury with both drugs, and pioglitazone might reduce the scarring that results from the inflammation of NASH. Two problems that occur with treatment are weight gain and, with rosiglitazone, an increase in heart attacks. Pioglitazone may be used to treat NASH; however, it needs to be recognized that its long-term effectiveness and safety have not been well-established.
Vitamin E has been studied in NASH because of its general effects of opposing inflammation. It has been shown to reduce liver fat and inflammation and possibly fibrosis, but its long-term effectiveness and safety have not been well-studied. Moreover, treatment of patients with vitamin E who do not have NASH is associated with a higher mortality. Vitamin E can be used for treating NASH, but it should be used selectively (not in all patients), and patients should understand the potential risk.
Pentoxyfylline (Trental) has been studied for the treatment of NASH in small groups of patients with encouraging results; however, there is not enough experience or knowledge of its effectiveness and safety to recommend treatment outside of research studies.
Small studies have shown some benefit with omega-3-fatty acids in reducing liver fat in NAFLD, and larger studies are underway. In large groups of individuals (not selected because of the presence or absence of NAFLD), omega-3-fatty acids were shown to reduce cardiovascular events such as heart attacks and overall mortality. Therefore, omega-3-fatty acids may be appropriate treatment for patients with NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome because these patients have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and death.
Lipid-lowering drugs, specifically the statins and ezetimibe (Zetia), have been used to treat the abnormal blood lipids associated with the metabolic syndrome. Although there is evidence of beneficial effects of these drugs on the liver in NAFLD, there is not enough experience to recommend them in patients with NAFLD unless they are primarily being used for treating abnormal blood lipids.
Ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursodiol) has been studied in NAFLD but has been abandoned because of its ineffectiveness and concerns about toxicity at very high doses.
Next: Bariatric surgery
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