Fibrocystic Breast Condition (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Fibrocystic breast condition facts
- What are fibrocystic breasts?
- Is there a difference between fibrocystic breast condition and fibrocystic breast disease?
- What causes fibrocystic breasts?
- What are the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition?
- Which women are more likely to develop fibrocystic breast condition?
- Can fibrocystic breast condition affect just one breast?
- Why is it important to diagnosis fibrocystic breasts?
- How is fibrocystic breast condition diagnosed?
- Is there more than one type of fibrocystic breast condition?
- Why can fibrocystic breast condition be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer?
- Why don't all women with fibrocystic breast condition have breast biopsies?
- What is the recommended follow-up for women with fibrocystic breast condition?
- How is the risk of breast cancer in fibrocystic breast condition patients calculated?
- What are the treatments for fibrocystic breast condition?
- Are there any dietary or life style factors associated with fibrocystic breast condition?
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Why can fibrocystic breast condition be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer?
Fibrocystic breast condition that involves hyperplasia is associated with a slightly elevated risk of breast cancer, and atypical hyperplasia is associated with a moderately increased risk of breast cancer when compared to women without fibrocystic changes. This is because genetic errors (mutations) have begun to accumulate in cells that no longer respond normally to the signals that usually control cell growth and division. These cells may also have an impaired ability to repair any genetic damage. As the atypical cells increase in number, they accumulate additional genetic errors.
Environmental, dietary, and metabolic toxins may also interact with a woman's complex hormonal system to increase the risk of mutations and thus increase the risk of breast cancer. It has been demonstrated that individuals differ significantly in their ability to break down and remove toxins from the body. Some of this varied response to toxins may be due to inherited differences. The potential for DNA damage (leading to genetic errors or mutations), which can be caused by a variety of damaging agents combined with the stimulation of cell division, is what ultimately leads to the risk of breast cancer that is associated with some cases of fibrocystic breast condition; the ability to recognize and repair DNA damage, a process that cells must continuously perform, varies from person to person.
Why don't all women with fibrocystic breast condition have breast biopsies?
One reason to undergo a breast biopsy is to diagnose breast cancer. Another reason is to identify those women with fibrocystic breast condition who may have atypical hyperplasia and are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer in the future. However, it is important to note that the severity of a woman's symptoms and clinical signs of fibrocystic breast condition (pain and lumpiness) do not necessarily correlate with the severity or the cellular changes seen findings under the microscope. Therefore, it is difficult to single out every woman with fibrocystic breast condition for whom a breast biopsy would be useful.
Additional reasons why breast biopsies are not done on every woman with fibrocystic breast condition include: (1) the invasive nature of the biopsy procedure; (2) the necessity of anesthesia; and (3) cost-benefit considerations. Instead, most women with fibrocystic breast condition are followed over time as if they all are at an increased risk for developing breast cancer. The woman herself must ensure that her clinician is appropriately monitoring her on a regular basis.
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