Fiorinal with Codeine
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Fiorinal with Codeine
The toxic effects of acute overdosage of Fiorinal with Codeine are attributable mainly to the barbiturate and codeine components, and, to a lesser extent, aspirin. Because toxic effects of caffeine occur in very high dosages only, the possibility of significant caffeine toxicity from Fiorinal with Codeine overdosage is unlikely.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms attributable to acute barbiturate poisoning include drowsiness, confusion, and coma; respiratory depression; hypotension; hypovolemic shock. Symptoms attributable to acute aspirin poisoning include hyperpnea; acid-base disturbances with development of metabolic acidosis; vomiting and abdominal pain; tinnitus, hyperthermia; hypoprothrombinemia; restlessness; delirium; convulsions. Acute caffeine poisoning may cause insomnia, restlessness, tremor, and delirium; tachycardia and extrasystoles. Symptoms of acute codeine poisoning include the opioid triad of: pinpoint pupils, marked depression of respiration, and loss of consciousness. Convulsions may occur.
The following paragraphs describe one approach to the treatment of overdose with Fiorinal with Codeine. However, because strategies for the management of an overdose continually evolve, consultation with a regional poison control center is strongly encouraged.
Treatment consists primarily of management of barbiturate intoxication, reversal of the effects of codeine, and the correction of the acid-base imbalance due to salicylism. Vomiting should be induced mechanically or with emetics in the conscious patient. Gastric lavage may be used if the pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are present and if less than 4 hours have elapsed since ingestion. A cuffed endotracheal tube should be inserted before gastric lavage of the unconscious patient and when necessary to provide assisted respiration. Diuresis, alkalinization of the urine, and correction of electrolyte disturbances should be accomplished through administration of intravenous fluids such as 1% sodium bicarbonate and 5% dextrose in water.
Meticulous attention should be given to maintaining adequate pulmonary ventilation. The value of vasopressor agents such as Norepinephrine or Phenylephrine Hydrochloride in treating hypotension is questionable since they increase vasoconstriction and decrease blood flow. However, if prolonged support of blood pressure is required, Norepinephrine Bitartrate (Levophed®) may be given I.V. with the usual precautions and serial blood pressure monitoring. In severe cases of intoxication, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or exchange transfusion may be lifesaving. Hypoprothrombinemia should be treated with vitamin K, intravenously.
Methemoglobinemia over 30% should be treated with methylene blue by slow intravenous administration.
Naloxone, a narcotic antagonist, can reverse respiratory depression and coma associated with opioid overdose. Typically, a dose of 0.4-2 mg is given parenterally and may be repeated if an adequate response is not achieved. Since the duration of action of codeine may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance and repeated doses of the antagonist should be administered as needed to maintain adequate respiration. A narcotic antagonist should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression.
Up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose can be obtained from a Certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of Certified Regional Poison Control Centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference®.
Toxic and Lethal Doses (for adults)
Butalbital: toxic dose 1 g (20 capsules); lethal dose 2-5 g
Aspirin: toxic blood level greater than 30 mg/100 mL; lethal dose 10-30 g
Caffeine: toxic dose greater than 1 g; (25 capsules); lethal dose unknown
Codeine: toxic dose 240 mg (8 capsules); lethal dose 0.5-1 g
Fiorinal with Codeine is contraindicated under the following conditions:
- Postoperative pain management in children who have undergone tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy.
- Hypersensitivity or intolerance to aspirin, caffeine, butalbital or codeine.
- Patients with a hemorrhagic diathesis (e.g., hemophilia, hypoprothrombinemia, von Willebrand's disease, the thrombocytopenias, thrombasthenia and other ill-defined hereditary platelet dysfunctions, severe vitamin K deficiency and severe liver damage).
- Patients with the syndrome of nasal polyps, angioedema and bronchospastic reactivity to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in such patients.
- Peptic ulcer or other serious gastrointestinal lesions.
- Patients with porphyria.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/3/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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