"According to the World Health Organization, in 2010, malaria caused an estimated 219 million illnesses and 660,000 deaths, mostly children under 5 years old in Africa. These numbers represent a 25% decrease in malaria deaths globally and a 33% re"...
Treatment of Anaerobic Infections
Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU therapy. In a mixed aerobic and anaerobic infection, antibiotics appropriate for the treatment of the aerobic infection should be used in addition to Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU.
Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU is effective in Bacteroides fragilis infections resistant to clindamycin, chloramphenicol and penicillin.
Intra-Abdominal Infections, including peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess and liver abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus), Clostridium species, Eubacterium species, Peptococcus species and Peptostreptococcus species.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species and Fusobacterium species.
Gynecologic Infections, including endometritis, endomyometritis, tubo-ovarian abscess and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptostreptococcus species and Fusobacterium species.
Bacterial Septicemia caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group and Clostridium species.
Bone and Joint Infections, as adjunctive therapy, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.
Central Nervous System (CNS) Infections, including meningitis and brain abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.
Endocarditis caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.
The prophylactic administration of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery which is classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated. Prophylactic use of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU should be discontinued within 12 hours after surgery. If there are signs of infection, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism(s) so that appropriate therapy may be given (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU and other antibacterial drugs, Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
In elderly patients the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole may be altered and therefore monitoring of serum levels may be necessary to adjust the metronidazole dosage accordingly.
Treatment of Anaerobic Infections
The recommended dosage schedule for adults is:
|Loading Dose||15 mg/kg infused over one hour (approximately 1 g for a 70-kg adult).|
|Maintenance Dose||7.5 mg/kg infused over one hour every six hours (approximately 500 mg for a 70-kg adult). The first maintenance dose should be instituted six hours following the initiation of the loading dose.|
Parenteral therapy may be changed to oral metronidazole when conditions warrant, based upon the severity of the disease and the response of the patient to Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU treatment. The usual adult oral dosage is 7.5 mg/kg every six hours.
A maximum of 4 g should not be exceeded during a 24-hour period.
Patients with severe hepatic disease metabolize metronidazole slowly, with resultant accumulation of metronidazole and its metabolites in the plasma. Accordingly, for such patients, doses below those usually recommended should be administered cautiously. Close monitoring of plasma metronidazole levels3 and toxicity is recommended.
In patients receiving Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU in whom gastric secretions are continuously removed by nasogastric aspiration, sufficient metronidazole may be removed in the aspirate to cause a reduction in serum levels.
The dose of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU should not be specifically reduced in anuric patients since accumulated metabolites may be rapidly removed by dialysis.
The usual duration of therapy is 7 to 10 days; however, infections of the bone and joint, lower respiratory tract and endocardium may require longer treatment.
For surgical prophylactic use, to prevent postoperative infection in contaminated or potentially contaminated colorectal surgery, the recommended dosage schedule for adults is:
- 15 mg/kg infused over 30 to 60 minutes and completed approximately one hour before surgery; followed by
- 7.5 mg/kg infused over 30 to 60 minutes at 6 and 12 hours after the initial dose.
It is important that (1) administration of the initial preoperative dose be completed approximately one hour before surgery so that adequate drug levels are present in the serum and tissues at the time of initial incision, and (2) Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU be administered, if necessary, at 6-hour intervals to maintain effective drug levels. Prophylactic use of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU should be limited to the day of surgery only, following the above guidelines.
Caution: Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU is to be administered by slow intravenous drip infusion only, either as a continuous or intermittent infusion. Additives should not be introduced into Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU. If used with a primary intravenous fluid system, the primary solution should be discontinued during metronidazole infusion. DO NOT USE EQUIPMENT CONTAINING ALUMINUM (e.g., NEEDLES, CANNULAE) THAT WOULD COME IN CONTACT WITH THE DRUG SOLUTION.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU is supplied in 100 mL single dose plastic containers, each containing an iso-osmotic, buffered solution of 500 mg metronidazole as follows:
2B3421 -NDC 0338-1055-48 -500 mg/100 mL
Store at controlled room temperature, 59° to 86°F (15° to 30°C) and protect from light during storage. Do not remove unit from overwrap until ready for use. The overwrap is a moisture barrier. The inner bag maintains the sterility of the product. After removing overwrap, check for minute leaks by squeezing inner bag firmly. If leaks are found, discard solution as sterility may be impaired.
Directions For Use Of Viaflex Plus Plastic Container
Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU is a ready-to-use iso-osmotic solution. No dilution or buffering is required. Do not refrigerate. Each container of Metronidazole Injection, USP RTU contains 14 mEq of sodium.
Warning: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is completed.
Tear overwrap down side at slit and remove solution container. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. The opacity will diminish gradually. Check for leaks. Do not add supplementary medication.
Preparation for Administration
- Suspend container from eyelet support.
- Remove protector from outlet port at bottom of container.
- Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set.
3. Ralph, E.D. and Kirby, W.M.M.: Bioassay of Metronidazole with Either Anaerobic and Aerobic Incubation, J. Infect. Dis. 132:587-591 (Nov.) 1975; or Gulaid, et al.: Determination of Metronidazole and its Major Metabolites in Biological Fluids by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. BR.J.Clin. Pharmacol. 6:430-432, 1978.
Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015 USA. Rev. April, 2011
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/7/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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