"Nov. 2, 2012 -- Safety steps taken in the wake of the fungal meningitis outbreak have worsened drug shortages, raising questions about whether the U.S. must choose between the safety and the availability of crucial medicines.
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Details with Side Effects
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In controlled trials during the premarketing development of Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) , approximately 600 patients with minor sprains, strains, and contusions have been treated with Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) for up to two weeks.
Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation of Treatment
In the controlled trials, 3% of patients in both the Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) and placebo patch groups discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation were application site reactions, occurring in 2% of both the Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) and placebo patch groups. Application site reactions leading to dropout included pruritus, dermatitis, and burning.
Common Adverse Events
Overall, the most common adverse events associated with Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) treatment were skin reactions at the site of treatment.
Table 1 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, occurring in ≥ 1% of patients in controlled trials of Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) . A majority of patients treated with Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) had adverse events with a maximum intensity of "mild" or "moderate."
Table 1. Common Adverse Events (by body system and preferred
term) in ≥ 1% of Patients treated with Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) or Placebo Patch1
|Application Site Conditions||64||11||70||12|
|Nervous System Disorders||13||2||18||3|
| 1 The table lists adverse events occurring in
placebo-treated patients because the placebo-patch was comprised of the
same ingredients as Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) except for diclofenac. Adverse events
in the placebo group may therefore reflect effects of the non-active ingredients.
2 Includes: application site dryness, irritation, erythema, atrophy, discoloration, hyperhidriosis, and vesicles.
3 Includes: gastritis, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, upper abdominal pain, and dry mouth.
4 Includes: hypoaesthesia, dizziness, and hyperkinesias.
Foreign labeling describes that dermal allergic reactions may occur with Flector Patch treatment. Additionally, the treated area may become irritated or develop itching, erythema, edema, vesicles, or abnormal sensation.
Read the Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
When diclofenac is administered with aspirin, the binding of diclofenac to protein is reduced, although the clearance of free diclofenac is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of diclofenac and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.
The effects of anticoagulants such as warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.
NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Consider this interaction in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.
Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, observe the patient closely for signs of renal failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, observe patients carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Use caution when NSAIDs, including diclofenac, are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, may affect renal prostaglandins and increase the toxicity of certain drugs. Therefore, concomitant therapy with diclofenac may increase cyclosporine's nephrotoxicity. Use caution when diclofenac is administered concomitantly with cyclosporine.
Oral Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Concomitant use of oral and topical NSAIDs may result in a higher rate of hemorrhage, more frequent abnormal creatinine, urea and hemoglobin. Do not use combination therapy with Flector Patch (diclofenac epolamine topical patch) and an oral NSAID unless the benefit outweighs the risk and conduct periodic laboratory evaluations.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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