"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced its intention to take enforcement action against companies that manufacture and/or distribute certain unapproved prescription ear drop products (known as otic products) labeled to relieve ear "...
Pharmacokinetics: Drug concentrations in serum (in subjects with tympanostomy tubes and perforated tympanic membranes), in otorrhea, and in mucosa of the middle ear (in subjects with perforated tympanic membranes) were determined following otic administration of ofloxacin solution. In two single-dose studies, mean ofloxacin serum concentrations were low in adult patients with tympanostomy tubes, with and without otorrhea, after otic administration of a 0.3% solution (4.1 ng/mL (n=3) and 5.4 ng/mL (n=5), respectively). In adults with perforated tympanic membranes, the maximum serum drug level of ofloxacin detected was 10 ng/mL after administration of a 0.3% solution. Ofloxacin was detectable in the middle ear mucosa of some adult subjects with perforated tympanic membranes (11 of 16 subjects). The variability of ofloxacin concentration in middle ear mucosa was high. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 602 µ g/g after otic administration of a 0.3% solution. Ofloxacin was present in high concentrations in otorrhea (389-2850 µ g/g, n=13) 30 minutes after otic administration of a 0.3% solution in subjects with chronic suppurative otitis media and perforated tympanic membranes. However, the measurement of ofloxacin in the otorrhea does not necessarily reflect the exposure of the middle ear to ofloxacin.
Microbiology: Ofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gramnegative and gram-positive microorganisms. Ofloxacin exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a bacterial topoisomerase. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme which controls DNA topology and assists in DNA replication, repair, deactivation and transcription. Cross-resistance has been observed between ofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. There is generally no cross-resistance between ofloxacin and other classes of antibacterial agents such as beta-lactams or aminoglycosides.
Ofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and clinically in otic infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGEsection.
Aerobic and facultative gram-positive microorganisms
|Staphylococcus aureus||Streptococcus pneumoniae|
Aerobic and facultative gram-negative microorganisms
|Escherichia coli||Proteus mirabilis|
|Haemophilus influenzae||Pseudomonas aeruginosa|
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/15/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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