Flu Vaccination (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Flu vaccine (flu shot) facts
- What is flu?
- Why vaccinate for the flu?
- What are the different types of flu vaccines?
- What flu viruses does the flu vaccine protect against?
- How does the flu vaccine work to prevent the flu?
- When should one receive the flu vaccine?
- Who should receive the flu vaccine?
- Who should not receive the flu vaccine?
- What are risks and side effects of the flu vaccine?
- Can the flu vaccine give me the flu?
- What should I do about adverse reactions to the flu vaccine?
- How effective is the flu shot?
- What was the novel H1N1 (swine flu) vaccine?
- What is the best way to locate a flu shot clinic?
What was the novel H1N1 (swine flu) vaccine?
The H1N1 vaccine was a pandemic vaccine designed to provide immunity against the novel H1N1 flu outbreak in 2009, initially referred to as swine flu. The H1N1 vaccine was initially given to those at highest risk for complications of this illness (children, pregnant women, caregivers of children). Even though the virus proved not to be as deadly as expected, researchers suggest the H1N1 vaccine was effective in reducing the effects of this flu virus.
The U.S. Public Health Emergency for 2009 H1N1 influenza expired on June 23, 2010, but it is likely that the 2009 H1N1 virus will continue to spread among people as does a regular seasonal influenza virus.
What is the best way to locate a flu shot clinic?
Flu shots can be obtained through your health care professional's office, at community health departments, and at many pharmacies. Additionally, many employers and schools host flu shot clinics. Some employers may offer the vaccine free of charge. Your health care professional's office should be able to provide you with information about flu shot clinics available in your community.
The information above was adapted in part from recommendations of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Key Facts About Seasonal Influenza," 2009, and "Questions and Answers: 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine," 2009.
Monto, A.S., Ohmit, S.E., Petrie, J.G., Johnson, E., Truscon, R., Teich, E., Rotthoff, J., Boulton, M., Victor, J.C. "Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines." N Engl J Med 361.13 Sept. 24, 2009: 1260-7.
Rhorer, J., Ambrose, C.S., Dickinson, S., Hamilton, H., Oleka, N.A., Malinoski, F.J., Wittes, J. "Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children: A meta-analysis of nine randomized clinical trials." Vaccine 27.7 Feb. 11, 2009: 1101-10.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine." Sept. 21, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/keyfacts.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The Nasal-Spray Flu Vaccine (Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV])." Sept. 21, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/FLU/about/qa/nasalspray.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu)." Aug. 19, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/children.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu)." Sept. 7, 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Selecting the Viruses in the Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine." Mar. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/Flu/professionals/vaccination/virusqa.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2009 H1N1 Vaccine Safety Summary." Dec. 4, 2009. <http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/in_the_news/vaccine_safety_summary.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Influenza." Sept. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/whoshouldvax.htm>.
Previous contributing editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
Last Editorial Review: 1/10/2013
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