Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids can produce reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adre-nal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency after withdrawal of treatment. Manifestations of Cushing's syndrome, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria can also be produced in some patients by systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids while on treatment.
Patients applying a topical steroid to a large surface area or to areas under occlusion should be evaluated periodically for evidence of HPAaxis suppression. This may be done by using the ACTH stimulation, A.M. plasma cortisol, and urinary free cortisol tests.
If HPAaxis suppression is noted, an attempt should be made to withdraw the drug, to reduce the frequency of application, or to substitute a less potent corticosteroid. Infrequently, signs and symptoms of glucocorticoid insufficiency may occur requiring supplemental systemic corticosteroids. For information on systemic supplementation, see prescribing information for those products.
Children may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity from equivalent doses due to their larger skin surface to body mass ratios. (See PRECAUTIONS - Pediatric use)
Allergic contact dermatitis to any component of topical corticosteroids is usually diagnosed by a failure to heal rather than noting a clinical exacerbation, which may occur with most topical products not containing corticosteroids. Such an observation should be corroborated with appropriate diagnostic testing. One peanut-sensitive child experienced a flare of his atopic dermatitis after 5 days of twice daily treatment with Derma-Smoothe/FS Topical Oil® (see CLINICAL STUDIES section).
If wheal and flare type reactions (which may be limited to pruritus) or other manifestations of hypersensitivity develop, DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) should be discontinued immediately and appropriate therapy instituted.
If concomitant skin infections are present or develop, an appropriate antifungal or antibacterial agent should be used. If a favorable response does not occur promptly, use of DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) should be discontinued until the infection has been adequately controlled.
DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) is formulated with 48% refined peanut oil NF. Peanut oil used in this product is routinely tested for peanut proteins through amino acid analysis; the quantity of amino acids is below 0.5 parts per million (ppm). Physicians should use caution in prescribing DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) for peanut-sensitive individuals.
The following tests may be helpful in evaluating patients for HPA axis suppression:
ACTH stimulation test
A.M. plasma cortisol test
Urinary free cortisol test
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and impairment of fertility
Long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential or the effect on fertility of Fluocinolone Acetonide Oil. Studies have not been performed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of fluocinolone acetonide, the active ingredient in DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) . Some corticosteroids have been found to be genotoxic in various genotoxicity tests (i.e. the in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay with metabolic activation, the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, the Chinese hamster micronucleus test and the in vitro mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay).
Pregnancy category C: Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. Some corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women on teratogenic effects from DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) . Therefore, DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) is administered to a nursing woman.
DermOtic® Oil is not recommended for use on the face (See ADVERSE REACTIONS section).
Because of a higher ratio of skin surface area to body mass, children are at a greater risk than adults of HPA-axis-suppression when they are treated with topical corticosteroids. They are therefore also at greater risk of glucocorticosteroid insufficiency after withdrawal of treatment and of Cushing's syndrome while on treatment. Adverse effects including striae have been reported with inappropriate use of topical corticosteroids in infants and children. (See PRECAUTIONS).
HPA axis suppression, Cushing's syndrome, and intracranial hypertension have been reported in children receiving topical corticosteroids. Children may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity from equivalent doses due to their larger skin surface to body mass ratios. Manifestations of adrenal suppression in children include linear growth retardation, delayed weight gain, low plasma cortisol levels, and absence of response to ACTH stimulation. Manifestations of intracranial hypertension include bulging fontanelles, headaches, and bilateral papilledema.
DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) is formulated with 48% refined peanut oil NF. Peanut oil used in this product is routinely tested for peanut proteins through amino acid analysis; the quantity of amino acids is below 0.5 parts per million (ppm). Physicians should use caution in prescribing DermOtic® Oil (fluocinolone acetonide oil ear drops) for peanut sensitive individuals.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/3/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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