"In a response to mounting evidence, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that the diabetes drug metformin can be used safely in patients with mild and, in some cases, moderate kidney impairment after decades of warning against it. "...
Mechanism Of Action
Fluorescein sodium responds to electromagnetic radiation and light between the wavelengths of 465- 490 nm and fluoresces, i.e., emits light at wavelengths of 520-530 nm. Thus, the hydrocarbon is excited by blue light and emits light that appears yellowish-green. Following intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium in an aqueous solution, the unbound fraction of the fluorescein can be excited with a blue light flash from a fundus camera as it circulates through the ocular vasculature, and the yellowish green fluorescence of the dye is captured by the camera. In the fundus, the fluorescence of the dye demarcates the retinal and/or choroidal vasculature under observation, distinguishing it from adjacent areas/structures.
Within 7 to 14 seconds after IV administration into antecubital vein, fluorescein usually appears in the central artery of the eye. Within a few minutes of IV administration of fluorescein sodium, a yellowish discoloration of the skin occurs, which begins to fade after 6 to 12 hours of dosing. Various estimates of volume of distribution indicate that fluorescein distributes well into interstitial space (0.5 L/kg).
Fluorescein undergoes rapid metabolism to fluorescein monoglucuronide. After IV administration of fluorescein sodium (14 mg/kg) to 7 healthy subjects, approximately 80% of fluorescein in plasma was converted to glucuronide conjugate after a period of 1 hour post dose, indicating relatively rapid conjugation.
Fluorescein and its metabolites are mainly eliminated via renal excretion. After IV administration, the urine remains slightly fluorescent for 24 to 36 hours. A renal clearance of 1.75 mL/min/kg and a hepatic clearance (due to conjugation) of 1.50 mL/min/kg have been estimated. The systemic clearance of fluorescein was essentially complete by 48 to 72 hours after administration of 500 mg fluorescein.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/16/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Fluorescite Information
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