"NIH expects to admit a patient who has been exposed to the Ebola virus to its Clinical Center in the coming days. The patient is an American physician who was volunteering services in an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone.
Ceftazidime is generally well tolerated. The incidence of adverse reactions associated with the administration of ceftazidime was low in clinical trials. The most common were local reactions following IV injection and allergic and gastrointestinal reactions. Other adverse reactions were encountered infrequently. No disulfiram-like reactions were reported.
The following adverse effects from clinical trials were considered to be either related to ceftazidime therapy or were of uncertain etiology:
Local Effects, reported in fewer than 2% of patients, were phlebitis and inflammation at the site of injection (1 in 69 patients).
Hypersensitivity Reactions, reported in 2% of patients, were pruritus, rash, and fever. Immediate reactions, generally manifested by rash and/or pruritus, occurred in 1 in 285 patients. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme have also been reported with cephalosporin antibiotics, including ceftazidime. Angioedema and anaphylaxis (bronchospasm and/or hypotension) have been reported very rarely.
Gastrointestinal Symptoms, reported in fewer than 2% of patients, were diarrhea (1 in 78), nausea (1 in 156), vomiting (1 in 500), and abdominal pain (1 in 416). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after treatment (see WARNINGS).
Central Nervous System Reactions (fewer than 1%) included headache, dizziness, and paresthesia. Seizures have been reported with several cephalosporins, including ceftazidime. In addition, encephalopathy, coma, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and myoclonia have been reported in renally impaired patients treated with unadjusted dosing regimens of ceftazidime (see PRECAUTIONS: General).
Rare cases of hemolytic anemia have been reported.
Laboratory Test Changes noted during clinical trials with FORTAZ were transient and included: eosinophilia (1 in 13), positive Coombs test without hemolysis (1 in 23), thrombocytosis (1 in 45), and slight elevations in one or more of the hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT) (1 in 16), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT) (1 in 15), LDH (1 in 18), GGT (1 in 19), and alkaline phosphatase (1 in 23). As with some other cephalosporins, transient elevations of blood urea, blood urea nitrogen, and/or serum creatinine were observed occasionally. Transient leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and lymphocytosis were seen very rarely.
Postmarketing Experience With FORTAZ Products
In addition to the adverse events reported during clinical trials, the following events have been observed during clinical practice in patients treated with FORTAZ and were reported spontaneously. For some of these events, data are insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation.
Renal and Genitourinary
Cephalosporin-Class Adverse Reactions
In addition to the adverse reactions listed above that have been observed in patients treated with ceftazidime, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin-class antibiotics:
Altered Laboratory Tests
Read the Fortaz (ceftazidime) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of cephalosporins with aminoglycoside antibiotics or potent diuretics such as furosemide. Renal function should be carefully monitored, especially if higher dosages of the aminoglycosides are to be administered or if therapy is prolonged, because of the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity were not noted when ceftazidime was given alone in clinical trials.
Chloramphenicol has been shown to be antagonistic to beta-lactam antibiotics, including ceftazidime, based on In vitro studies and time kill curves with enteric gram-negative bacilli. Due to the possibility of antagonism in vivo, particularly when bactericidal activity is desired, this drug combination should be avoided.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The administration of ceftazidime may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine when using Clinitest® tablets, Benedict's solution, or Fehling's solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as CLINISTIX®) be used.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/7/2014
Additional Fortaz Information
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