"March 7, 2013 -- An FDA panel voted to stop recommending calcitonin salmon for the treatment of osteoporosis in women who are at least five years past menopause.
The committee voted 12-9 against continued marketing of the drug, citing"...
In male and female rats, teriparatide caused an increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma (a malignant bone tumor) that was dependent on dose and treatment duration [see BOXED WARNING and Nonclinical Toxicology]. FORTEO should not be prescribed for patients at increased baseline risk of osteosarcoma.
- Paget's disease of bone. Unexplained elevations of alkaline phosphatase may indicate Paget's disease of bone.
- Pediatric and young adult patients with open epiphyses.
- Prior external beam or implant radiation therapy involving the skeleton.
Patients should be encouraged to enroll in the voluntary FORTEO Patient Registry, which is designed to collect information about any potential risk of osteosarcoma in patients who have taken FORTEO. Enrollment information can be obtained by calling 1-866-382-6813, or by visiting www.forteoregistry.rti.org
The safety and efficacy of FORTEO have not been evaluated beyond 2 years of treatment. Consequently, use of the drug for more than 2 years during a patients' lifetime is not recommended.
Bone Metastases and Skeletal Malignancies
Patients with bone metastases or a history of skeletal malignancies should not be treated with FORTEO.
Metabolic Bone Diseases
Patients with metabolic bone diseases other than osteoporosis should not be treated with FORTEO.
Hypercalcemia and Hypercalcemic Disorders
FORTEO has not been studied in patients with pre-existing hypercalcemia. These patients should not be treated with FORTEO because of the possibility of exacerbating hypercalcemia. Patients known to have an underlying hypercalcemic disorder, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, should not be treated with FORTEO.
Urolithiasis or Pre-existing Hypercalciuria
In clinical trials, the frequency of urolithiasis was similar in patients treated with FORTEO and placebo. However, FORTEO has not been studied in patients with active urolithiasis. If active urolithiasis or pre-existing hypercalciuria are suspected, measurement of urinary calcium excretion should be considered. FORTEO should be used with caution in patients with active or recent urolithiasis because of the potential to exacerbate this condition.
FORTEO should be administered initially under circumstances in which the patient can sit or lie down if symptoms of orthostatic hypotension occur. In short-term clinical pharmacology studies with teriparatide, transient episodes of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension were observed in 5% of patients. Typically, an event began within 4 hours of dosing and spontaneously resolved within a few minutes to a few hours. When transient orthostatic hypotension occurred, it happened within the first several doses, it was relieved by placing the person in a reclining position, and it did not preclude continued treatment.
Hypercalcemia may predispose patients to digitalis toxicity. Because FORTEO transiently increases serum calcium, patients receiving digoxin should use FORTEO with caution [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patient Counseling Information
See Medication Guide.
Potential Risk of Osteosarcoma and Voluntary FORTEO Patient Registry
Patients should be made aware that in rats, teriparatide caused an increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma (a malignant bone tumor) that was dependent on dose and treatment duration. Patients should be encouraged to enroll in the voluntary FORTEO Patient Registry, which is designed to collect information about any potential risk of osteosarcoma in patients who have taken FORTEO. Enrollment information can be obtained by calling 1-866-382-6813, or by visiting www.forteoregistry.rti.org.
FORTEO should be administered initially under circumstances where the patient can immediately sit or lie down if symptoms occur. Patients should be instructed that if they feel lightheaded or have palpitations after the injection, they should sit or lie down until the symptoms resolve. If symptoms persist or worsen, patients should be instructed to consult a physician before continuing treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Although symptomatic hypercalcemia was not observed in clinical trials, physicians should instruct patients taking FORTEO to contact a health care provider if they develop persistent symptoms of hypercalcemia (e.g., nausea, vomiting, constipation, lethargy, muscle weakness).
Other Osteoporosis Treatment Modalities
Patients should be informed regarding the roles of supplemental calcium and/or vitamin D, weight-bearing exercise, and modification of certain behavioral factors such as cigarette smoking and/or alcohol consumption.
Use of Delivery Device (Pen)
Patients and caregivers who administer FORTEO should be instructed on how to properly use the delivery device (refer to User Manual), properly dispose of needles, and be advised not to share their delivery device with other patients. The contents of the delivery device should NOT be transferred to a syringe.
Each FORTEO delivery device can be used for up to 28 days including the first injection from the delivery device. After the 28-day use period, discard the FORTEO delivery device, even if it still contains some unused solution.
Availability of Medication Guide and User Manual
Patients should read the Medication Guide and delivery device (pen) User Manual before starting therapy with FORTEO and re-read them each time the prescription is renewed. Patients need to understand and follow the instructions in the FORTEO delivery device User Manual. Failure to do so may result in inaccurate dosing.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two carcinogenicity bioassays were conducted in Fischer 344 rats. In the first study, male and female rats were given daily subcutaneous teriparatide injections of 5, 30, or 75 mcg/kg/day for 24 months from 2 months of age. These doses resulted in systemic exposures that were, respectively, 3, 20, and 60 times higher than the systemic exposure observed in humans following a subcutaneous dose of 20 mcg (based on AUC comparison). Teriparatide treatment resulted in a marked dose-related increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma, a rare malignant bone tumor, in both male and female rats. Osteosarcomas were observed at all doses and the incidence reached 40% to 50% in the high-dose groups. Teriparatide also caused a dose-related increase in osteoblastoma and osteoma in both sexes. No osteosarcomas, osteoblastomas or osteomas were observed in untreated control rats. The bone tumors in rats occurred in association with a large increase in bone mass and focal osteoblast hyperplasia.
The second 2-year study was carried out in order to determine the effect of treatment duration and animal age on the development of bone tumors. Female rats were treated for different periods between 2 and 26 months of age with subcutaneous doses of 5 and 30 mcg/kg (equivalent to 3 and 20 times the human exposure at the 20-mcg dose, based on AUC comparison). The study showed that the occurrence of osteosarcoma, osteoblastoma and osteoma was dependent upon dose and duration of exposure. Bone tumors were observed when immature 2-month old rats were treated with 30 mcg/kg/day for 24 months or with 5 or 30 mcg/kg/day for 6 months. Bone tumors were also observed when mature 6-month old rats were treated with 30 mcg/kg/day for 6 or 20 months. Tumors were not detected when mature 6-month old rats were treated with 5 mcg/kg/day for 6 or 20 months. The results did not demonstrate a difference in susceptibility to bone tumor formation, associated with teriparatide treatment, between mature and immature rats.
The relevance of these animal findings to humans is uncertain.
Teriparatide was not genotoxic in any of the following test systems: the Ames test for bacterial mutagenesis; the mouse lymphoma assay for mammalian cell mutation; the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells, with and without metabolic activation; and the in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment of Fertility
No effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats given subcutaneous teriparatide doses of 30, 100, or 300 mcg/kg/day prior to mating and in females continuing through gestation Day 6 (16 to 160 times the human dose of 20 mcg based on surface area, mcg/m²).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of FORTEO in pregnant women. In animal studies, teriparatide increased skeletal deviations and variations in mouse offspring at doses more than 60 times the equivalent human dose and produced mild growth retardation and reduced motor activity in rat offspring at doses more than 120 times the equivalent human dose. FORTEO should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In animal studies, pregnant mice received teriparatide during organogenesis at subcutaneous doses 8 to 267 times the human dose. At doses ≥60 times the human dose, the fetuses showed an increased incidence of skeletal deviations or variations (interrupted rib, extra vertebra or rib). When pregnant rats received subcutaneous teriparatide during organogenesis at doses 16 to 540 times the human dose, the fetuses showed no abnormal findings.
In a perinatal/postnatal study, pregnant rats received subcutaneous teriparatide from organogenesis through lactation. Mild growth retardation in female offspring at doses ≥120 times the human dose (based on surface area, mcg/m²). Mild growth retardation in male offspring and reduced motor activity in both male and female offspring occurred at maternal doses 540 times the human dose. There were no developmental or reproductive effects in mice or rats at doses 8 or 16 times the human dose, respectively.
Exposure multiples were normalized based on body surface area (mcg/m²). Actual animal doses: mice (30 to 1000 mcg/kg/day); rats (30 to 1000 mcg/kg/day).
It is not known whether teriparatide is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for teriparatide in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and efficacy of FORTEO have not been established in any pediatric population. FORTEO should not be prescribed in patients at an increased baseline risk of osteosarcoma which include pediatric and young adult patients with open epiphyses.
Therefore, FORTEO is not indicated for use in pediatric or young adult patients with open epiphyses [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Of the patients receiving FORTEO in the osteoporosis trial of 1637 postmenopausal women, 75% were 65 years of age and over and 23% were 75 years of age and over. Of the patients receiving FORTEO in the osteoporosis trial of 437 men, 39% were 65 years of age and over and 13% were 75 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
No studies have been performed in patients with hepatic impairment. [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
In 5 patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/min), the AUC and T½ of teriparatide were increased by 73% and 77%, respectively. Maximum serum concentration of teriparatide was not increased [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/13/2012
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