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Serious hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients receiving calcitonin-salmon nasal spray, e.g., bronchospasm, swelling of the tongue or throat, anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock. Reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions with injectable calcitonin-salmon have also been reported, including reports of death attributed to anaphylaxis. The usual provisions should be made for emergency treatment if such a reaction occurs. Hypersensitivity reactions should be differentiated from generalized flushing and hypotension [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
For patients with suspected hypersensitivity to calcitonin-salmon, skin testing should be considered prior to treatment utilizing a dilute, sterile solution of a calcitonin-salmon injectable product. Healthcare providers may wish to refer patients who require skin testing to an allergist. A detailed skin testing protocol is available from Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc. by calling toll-free at 1-888-650-3789.
Hypocalcemia associated with tetany (i.e. muscle cramps, twitching) and seizure activity has been reported with calcitonin therapy. Hypocalcemia must be corrected before initiating therapy with Fortical nasal spray. Other disorders affecting mineral metabolism (such as vitamin D deficiency) should also be effectively treated. In patients with these conditions, serum calcium and symptoms of hypocalcemia should be monitored during therapy with Fortical nasal spray. Use of Fortical nasal spray is recommended in conjunction with an adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Nasal Adverse Reactions
Adverse reactions related to the nose including rhinitis and epistaxis have been reported. Development of mucosal alterations may occur. Therefore, periodic nasal examinations with visualization of the nasal mucosa, turbinates, septum and mucosal blood vessels are recommended prior to start of treatment with Fortical nasal spray, periodically during the course of therapy, and at any time nasal symptoms occur.
Fortical nasal spray should be discontinued if severe ulceration of the nasal mucosa occurs, as indicated by ulcers greater than 1.5 mm in diameter or penetrating below the mucosa, or those associated with heavy bleeding. Although smaller ulcers often heal without withdrawal of Fortical nasal spray, medication should be discontinued temporarily until healing occurs [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In a meta-analysis of 21 randomized, controlled clinical trials with calcitonin-salmon (nasal spray or investigational oral formulations), the overall incidence of malignancies reported was higher among calcitonin-salmon-treated patients (4.1%) compared with placebo-treated patients (2.9%). This suggests an increased risk of malignancies in calcitonin-salmon-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. The benefits for the individual patient should be carefully considered against possible risks [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Circulating antibodies to calcitonin-salmon have been reported with calcitonin-salmon nasal spray. The possibility of antibody formation should be considered in any patient with an initial response to Fortical nasal spray who later stops responding to treatment [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Urine Sediment Abnormalities
Coarse granular casts and casts containing renal tubular epithelial cells were reported in young adult volunteers at bed rest who were given injectable calcitonin-salmon to study the effect of immobilization on osteoporosis. There was no other evidence of renal abnormality and the urine sediment normalized after calcitonin-salmon was stopped. Periodic examinations of urine sediment should be considered. Urine sediment abnormalities have not been reported in ambulatory volunteers treated with calcitonin-salmon nasal spray.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use).
- Instruct patients on pump assembly, priming of the pump, and nasal introduction of Fortical nasal spray. Although instructions for patients are supplied with the individual bottle, procedures for use should be demonstrated to each patient [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Patients should notify their healthcare provider if they develop significant nasal irritation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Inform patients of the potential increase in risk of malignancy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Advise patients to maintain an adequate calcium (at least 1000 mg elemental calcium per day) and vitamin D (at least 400 International Units per day) intake [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Instruct patients to seek emergency medical help or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away if they develop any signs or symptoms of a serious allergic reaction.
- Advise patients how to correctly store unopened and opened product [see HOW SUPPLIED/Storage and Handling]. Advise patients that the bottle should be discarded after 30 doses, because after 30 doses, each spray may not deliver the correct amount of medication even if the bottle is not completely empty.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
The incidence of pituitary adenomas was increased in rats after one and two years of subcutaneous exposure to synthetic calcitonin-salmon. The significance of this finding to humans is unknown because pituitary adenomas are very common in rats as they age, the pituitary adenomas did not transform into metastatic tumors, there were no other clear treatment-related neoplasms, and synthetic calcitonin-salmon related neoplasms were not observed in mice after two years of dosing.
The only clear neoplastic finding in rats dosed subcutaneously with synthetic calcitonin-salmon was an increase in the incidence of pituitary adenomas in male Fisher 344 rats and female Sprague Dawley rats after one year of dosing and male Sprague Dawley rats dosed for one and two years. In female Sprague Dawley rats, the incidence of pituitary adenomas after two years was high in all treatment groups (between 80% and 92% including the control groups) such that a treatment-related effect could not be distinguished from natural background incidence. The lowest dose in male Sprague Dawley rats that developed an increased incidence of pituitary adenomas after two years of dosing (1.7 International Units/kg/day) is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended intranasal dose in humans (200 International Units/day) based on body surface area conversion between rats and humans and a 20-fold conversion factor to account for decreased clinical exposure via the intranasal route. The findings suggest that calcitonin-salmon reduced the latency period for development of non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
No carcinogenicity potential was evident in male or female mice dosed subcutaneously for two years with synthetic calcitonin-salmon at doses up to 800 International Units/kg/day. The 800 International Units/kg/day dose is approximately 390 times the maximum recommended intranasal dose in humans (200 International Units) based on scaling for body surface area and a 20-fold conversion factor to account for low clinical exposure via the intranasal route.
Synthetic calcitonin-salmon tested negative for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium (5 strains) and Escherichia coli (2 strains), with and without rat liver metabolic activation, and was not clastogenic in a chromosome aberration test in Chinese Hamster V79 cells. There was no evidence that calcitonin-salmon was clastogenic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Effects of calcitonin-salmon on fertility have not been assessed in animals.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Fortical nasal spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the use as compared with potential risks to the patient and fetus. Based on animal data, Fortical is predicted to have low probability of increasing the risk of adverse developmental outcomes above background risk.
Synthetic calcitonin-salmon has been shown to cause a decrease in fetal birth weights in rabbits when given by subcutaneous injection at doses 70-278 times the intranasal dose recommended for human use based on body surface area.
No embryo/fetal toxicities related to synthetic calcitonin-salmon were reported from maternal subcutaneous daily doses in rats up to 80 International Units/kg/day from gestation day 6 to 15.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. No studies have been conducted to assess the impact of Fortical on milk production in humans, its presence in human breast milk, or its effects on the breast-fed child. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Fortical is administered to a nursing woman. Synthetic calcitoninsalmon has been shown to inhibit lactation in rats.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
In a multi-centered, double-blind, randomized clinical study of calcitonin-salmon nasal spray, 279 patients were less than 65 years old, while 467 patients were 65 to 74 years old and 196 patients were 75 and over. Compared to subjects less than 65 years old, the incidence of nasal adverse reactions (rhinitis, irritation, erythema, and excoriation) was higher in patients over the age of 65, particularly those over the age of 75. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/24/2014
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