"Jan. 23, 2013 -- Worrying about what may trigger a migraine attack adds to the discomfort of many people with migraines. But according to a new study from Denmark, much of that worry may be unfounded.
The researchers studied the effect of l"...
Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, And Prinzmetal's Angina
FROVA is contraindicated in patients with ischemic or vasospastic CAD. There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of FROVA. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known CAD. FROVA may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Perform a cardiovascular evaluation in triptan-naïve patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving FROVA. Do not administer FROVA if there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm [ see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. For patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider administrating the first FROVA dose in a medically-supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following FROVA administration. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of FROVA.
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue FROVA if these disturbances occur. FROVA is contraindicated in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Chest, Throat, Neck And Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure
Sensations of pain, tightness, pressure, and heaviness have been reported in the chest, throat, neck, and jaw after treatment with FROVA and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, perform a cardiac evaluation if these patients are at high cardiac risk. The use of FROVA is contraindicated in patients with CAD and those with Prinzmetal's angina [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke and other cerebrovascular events have been reported in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not.
Before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with symptoms atypical of migraine, other potentially serious neurological conditions need to be excluded. FROVA is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Other Vasospasm Reactions
FROVA, may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud's syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of a vasospastic reaction following the use of any 5HT1 agonist, rule out a vasospastic reaction before using FROVA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established.
Medication Overuse Headache
Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or combination of these drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with FROVA, particularly during co-administration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue FROVA if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Increase In Blood Pressure
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, including patients without a history of hypertension.
Monitor blood pressure in patients treated with FROVA. FROVA is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
There have been reports of anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, and hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema in patients receiving FROVA. Such reactions can be life threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. FROVA is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to FROVA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Myocardial Ischemia And/Or Infarction, Prinzmetal's Angina, Other Vasospastic Reactions, And Cerebrovascular Events
Inform patients that FROVA may cause serious cardiovascular adverse reactions such as myocardial infarction or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious cardiovascular reactions can occur without warning symptoms, instruct patients to be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and instruct them to ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if they have symptoms of other vasospastic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving FROVA. Such reactions can be life threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Medication Overuse Headache
Inform patients that use of drugs to treat acute migraines for 10 or more days per month may lead to an exacerbation of headache, and encourage patients to record headache frequency and drug use (e.g., by keeping a headache diary) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the use of FROVA or other triptans, particularly during combined use with SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Inform patients that FROVA should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations].
Inform patients to notify their healthcare provider if they are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed [see Use in Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
The carcinogenic potential of orally administered frovatriptan was evaluated in an 84-week study in mice (4, 13, and 40 mg/kg/day), a 104-week study in rats (8.5, 27 and 85 mg/kg/day), and a 26-week study in p53(+/-) transgenic mice (20, 62.5, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day). Although a maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in the 84-week mouse study and in female rats, plasma exposures at the highest doses studied were higher than that achieved in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 7.5 mg/day. There were no increases in tumor incidence in the 84-week mouse study at doses producing plasma exposures (AUC) 140 times that in humans at the MRHD. In the rat study, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of pituitary adenomas in males only at 85 mg/kg/day, a dose associated with a plasma AUC 250 times that in humans at the MRHD. In the 26-week p53(+/-) transgenic mouse study, the incidence of subcutaneous sarcomas was increased in females at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day.
These sarcomas were associated with subcutaneously implanted animal identification transponders, and are not considered to be relevant to humans. There were no other increases in tumor incidence of any type in any dose group.
Frovatriptan was clastogenic in human lymphocyte cultures, in the absence of metabolic activation. In the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), frovatriptan produced an equivocal response in the absence of metabolic activation. Frovatriptan was negative in an in vitro mouse lymphoma tk assay and an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
Impairment Of Fertility
Male and female rats were dosed orally with frovatriptan prior to and during mating and in females up to implantation, at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day (equivalent to approximately 130, 650, and 1300 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). At all dose levels, there was an increase in the number of females that mated on the first day of pairing compared to control animals. This occurred in conjunction with a prolongation of the estrous cycle. In addition, females had a decreased mean number of corpora lutea, and consequently a lower number of live fetuses per litter, which suggested a partial impairment of ovulation. There were no other fertility-related effects.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials in pregnant women; therefore, frovatriptan should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
When pregnant rats were administered frovatriptan during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 130, 650 and 1300 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 7.5 mg/day on a mg/m² basis) there were dose related increases in incidences of fetuses with dilated ureters, unilateral and bilateral pelvic cavitation, hydronephrosis, and hydroureters. A no-effect dose for renal effects was not established. This signifies a syndrome of related effects on a specific organ in the developing embryo in all treated groups, which is consistent with a slight delay in fetal maturation. This delay was also indicated by a treatment related increased incidence of incomplete ossification of the sternebrae, skull and nasal bones in all treated groups. Reduced fetal weights and an increased incidence of embryolethality were observed in treated rats; an increase in embryolethality occurred in both the embryo-fetal developmental study and in the prenatal-postnatal developmental study. No increase in embryolethality was observed at the lowest dose level studied (100 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 130 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). When pregnant rabbits were dosed throughout organogenesis at oral doses up to 80 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 210 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis), no effects on fetal development were observed.
It is not known whether frovatriptan is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from FROVA, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
In rats, oral dosing with frovatriptan resulted in levels of frovatriptan and/or its metabolites in milk up to four times higher than in plasma.
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Therefore, FROVA is not recommended for use in patients under 18 years of age. There are no additional adverse reactions identified in pediatric patients based on postmarketing experience that were not previously identified in adults.
Mean blood concentrations of frovatriptan in elderly patients were 1.5-to 2-times higher than those seen in younger adults [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. No dosage adjustment is necessary.
Patients With Hepatic Impairment
No dosage adjustment is necessary when FROVA is given to patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.
There is no clinical or pharmacokinetic experience with FROVA in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Because a greater than two-fold increase in AUC is predicted in patients with severe hepatic impairment, there is a greater potential for adverse events in these patients, and FROVA should therefore be used with caution in that population.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/29/2016
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