"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aptiom (eslicarbazepine acetate) as an add-on medication to treat seizures associated with epilepsy.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder caused by abnormal or excessive activity in the brain"...
Gabitril Side Effects Center
Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Gabitril (tiagabine hydrochloride) is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat partial seizures in adults and children who are at least 12 years old. It is an anti-epileptic medication (anticonvulsant). This medication is available in generic form. Common side effects include inability to concentrate, dizziness, drowsiness, nervousness, irritability, tiredness, or shaking.
The recommended starting dose of Gabitril for adult patients who are already taking enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) is 4 mg once daily. The total daily dose may be increased by 4 to 8 mg at weekly intervals until clinical response is achieved or, up to 56 mg/day. The starting dose in adolescents 12 to 18 years old is 4 mg once daily, which may be increased by 4 to 8 mg at weekly intervals, up to 32 mg/day. Gabitril may interact with cold or allergy medicines, narcotics, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, medicines for depression or anxiety, medicines to treat a psychiatric disorder, diet pills, stimulants, or ADHD medications, carbamazepine, divalproex, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or valproic acid. Tell your doctor all medications you use. Gabitril should be used only when prescribed during pregnancy. It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
Our Gabitril (tiagabine hydrochloride) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is Patient Information in Detail?
Easy-to-read and understand detailed drug information and pill images for the patient or caregiver from Cerner Multum.
Gabitril in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; fever; swollen glands; painful sores in or around your eyes or mouth; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have any new or worsening symptoms such as: mood or behavior changes, depression, anxiety, or if you feel agitated, hostile, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself.
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
- new or worsened seizures;
- confusion, hallucination;
- problems with speech or vision;
- severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
- fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms; or
- chest pain, fast heart rate.
Less serious side effects may include:
- dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, tired feeling;
- feeling restless, irritable, or depressed;
- nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea;
- trouble concentrating;
- sleep problems (insomnia);
- lack of coordination;
- cough, sore throat; or
- weight changes.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride) »
What is Patient Information Overview?
A concise overview of the drug for the patient or caregiver from First DataBank.
Gabitril Overview - Patient Information: Side Effects
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: increase in seizure activity, confusion/trouble thinking clearly, difficulty forming sentences, depression, severe weakness.
A small number of people who take anticonvulsants for any condition (such as seizure, bipolar disorder, pain) may experience depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, or other mental/mood problems. Tell your doctor immediately if you or your family/caregiver notice any unusual/sudden changes in your mood, thoughts, or behavior including signs of depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, thoughts about harming yourself.
Seek immediate medical attention if you get a seizure that doesn't stop (status epilepticus). This is a very rare but very serious side effect.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In the US -
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
Read the entire patient information overview for Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)»
What is Prescribing information?
The FDA package insert formatted in easy-to-find categories for health professionals and clinicians.
Gabitril FDA Prescribing Information: Side Effects
The most commonly observed adverse events in placebo-controlled, parallel-group, add-on epilepsy trials associated with the use of GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) in combination with other antiepilepsy drugs not seen at an equivalent frequency among placebo-treated patients were dizziness/light-headedness, asthenia/lack of energy, somnolence, nausea, nervousness/irritability, tremor, abdominal pain, and thinking abnormal/difficulty with concentration or attention.
Approximately 21% of the 2531 patients who received GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) in clinical trials of epilepsy discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The adverse events most commonly associated with discontinuation were dizziness (1.7%), somnolence (1.6%), depression (1.3%), confusion (1.1%), and asthenia (1.1%).
In Studies 1 and 2 (U.S. studies), the double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, add-on studies, the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment because of adverse events was 11% for the group treated with GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) and 6% for the placebo group. The most common adverse events considered the primary reason for discontinuation were confusion (1.2%), somnolence (1.0%), and ataxia (1.0%).
Adverse Event Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials: Table 5 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in at least 1% of patients treated with GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) for epilepsy participating in parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials and were numerically more common in the GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) group. In these studies, either GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) or placebo was added to the patient's current antiepilepsy drug therapy. Adverse events were usually mild or moderate in intensity.
The prescriber should be aware that these figures, obtained when GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) was added to concurrent antiepilepsy drug therapy, cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice when patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those prevailing during clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, or investigators. An inspection of these frequencies, however, does provide the prescribing physician with one basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidences in the population studied.
Table 5: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event1 Incidence
in Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Trials (events in at least 1%
of patients treated with GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) and numerically more frequent than in the
|Body System/COSTART|| GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride)
|Body as a Whole|
|Difficulty with Concentration/Attention*||6||2|
|Difficulty with Memory*||4||3|
|Skin and Appendages|
|1 Patients in these add-on studies were receiving
one to three concomitant enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs in addition
to GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) or placebo. Patients may have reported multiple adverse experiences;
thus, patients may be included in more than one category.
*COSTART term substituted with a more clinically descriptive term.
Other events reported by 1% or more of patients treated with GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) but equally or more frequent in the placebo group were: accidental injury, chest pain, constipation, flu syndrome, rhinitis, anorexia, back pain, dry mouth, flatulence, ecchymosis, twitching, fever, amblyopia, conjunctivitis, urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, infection, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, nausea and vomiting, myalgia, diplopia, headache, anxiety, acne, sinusitis, and incoordination.
Study 1 was a dose-response study including doses of 32 mg and 56 mg. Table 6 shows adverse events reported at a rate of ≥ 5% in at least one GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) group and more frequent than in the placebo group. Among these events, depression, tremor, nervousness, difficulty with concentration/attention, and perhaps asthenia exhibited a positive relationship to dose.
Table 6: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in Study
l† (events in at least 5% of patients treated with GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride)
32 or 56 mg and numerically more frequent than in the Dlacebo group)
|Body System/COSTART Term|| GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride)
| GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride)
|Body as a Whole|
|Hemic and Lymphatic System|
|Urinary Tract Infection||5||0||2|
|† Patients in this study were receiving one to three concomitant
enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs in addition to GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) or placebo. Patients
may have reported multiple adverse experiences; thus, patients may be included
in more than one category.
* COSTART term substituted with a more clinically descriptive term.
The effects of GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) in relation to those of placebo on the incidence of adverse events and the types of adverse events reported were independent of age, weight, and gender. Because only 10% of patients were non-Caucasian in parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials, there is insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse experience reports by race.
Other Adverse Events Observed During All Clinical Trials: GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) has been administered to 2531 patients during all phase 2/3 clinical trials, only some of which were placebo-controlled. During these trials, all adverse events were recorded by the clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals having adverse events, similar types of events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using modified COSTART dictionary terminology. These categories are used in the listing below. The frequencies presented represent the proportion of the 2531 patients exposed to GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) who experienced events of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) . All reported events are included except those already listed above, events seen only three times or fewer (unless potentially important), events very unlikely to be drug-related, and those too general to be informative. Events are included without regard to determination of a causal relationship to tiagabine.
Events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Body as a Whole: Frequent: Allergic reaction, pain, chills, cyst, neck pain, and malaise. Infrequent: Abscess, cellulitis, facial edema, halitosis, hernia, neck rigidity, neoplasm, pelvic pain, photosensitivity reaction, sepsis, sudden death, and suicide attempt.
Cardiovascular System: Frequent: Hypertension, palpitation, syncope, and tachycardia. Infrequent: Angina pectoris, cerebral ischemia, electrocardiogram abnormal, hemorrhage, hypotension, myocardial infarct, pallor, peripheral vascular disorder, phlebitis, postural hypotension, and thrombophlebitis.
Digestive System: Frequent: Gingivitis and stomatitis. Infrequent: Abnormal stools, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, fecal incontinence, gastritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, glossitis, gum hyperplasia, hepatomegaly, increased salivation, liver function tests abnormal, melena, periodontal abscess, rectal hemorrhage, thirst, tooth caries, and ulcerative stomatitis.
Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: Edema, peripheral edema, weight gain, and weight loss. Infrequent: Dehydration, hypercholesteremia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia.
Nervous System: Frequent: Depersonalization, dysarthria, euphoria, hallucination, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypokinesia, hypotonia, migraine, myoclonus, paranoid reaction, personality disorder, reflexes decreased, stupor, twitching, and vertigo. Infrequent: Abnormal dreams, apathy, choreoathetosis, circumoral paresthesia, CNS neoplasm, coma, delusions, dry mouth, dystonia, encephalopathy, hemiplegia, leg cramps, libido increased, libido decreased, movement disorder, neuritis, neurosis, paralysis, peripheral neuritis, psychosis, reflexes increased, and urinary retention.
Skin and Appendages: Frequent: Alopecia, dry skin, and sweating. Infrequent: Contact dermatitis, eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, furunculosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hirsutism, maculopapular rash, psoriasis, skin benign neoplasm, skin carcinoma, skin discolorations, skin nodules, skin ulcer, subcutaneous nodule, urticaria, and vesiculobullous rash.
Special Senses: Frequent: Abnormal vision, ear pain, otitis media, and tinnitus. Infrequent: Blepharitis, blindness, deafness, eye pain, hyperacusis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis externa, parosmia, photophobia, taste loss, taste perversion, and visual field defect.
Urogenital System: Frequent: Dysmenorrhea, dysuria, metrorrhagia, urinary incontinence, and vaginitis. Infrequent: Abortion, amenorrhea, breast enlargement, breast pain, cystitis, fibrocystic breast, hematuria, impotence, kidney failure, menorrhagia, nocturia, papanicolaou smear suspicious, polyuria, pyelonephritis, salpingitis, urethritis, urinary urgency, and vaginal hemorrhage.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
The abuse and dependence potential of GABITRIL (tiagabine hydrochloride) have not been evaluated in human studies.
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride) »
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
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