"A sophisticated transcranial Doppler ultrasound device appears able to help diagnose concussion by analyzing subtle variations in blood flow through the brain, a new study suggests.
"At present, concussion is diagnosed by assessing sy"...
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs among these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrast MRI or other modalities. The GBCA-associated NSF risk appears highest for patients with chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m²) as well as patients with acute kidney injury. The risk appears lower for patients with chronic, moderate kidney disease (GFR 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73m²) and little, if any, for patients with chronic, mild kidney disease (GFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73m²). NSF may result in fatal or debilitating fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs. Report any diagnosis of NSF following Gadavist administration to Bayer Healthcare (1-888-842-2937) or FDA (1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch).
Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. Features of acute kidney injury consist of rapid (over hours to days) and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, commonly in the setting of surgery, severe infection, injury or drug-induced kidney toxicity. Serum creatinine levels and estimated GFR may not reliably assess renal function in the setting of acute kidney injury. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (for example, age > 60 years, diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension), estimate the GFR through laboratory testing.
Among the factors that may increase the risk for NSF are repeated or higher than recommended doses of a GBCA and degree of renal impairment at the time of exposure. Record the specific GBCA and the dose administered to a patient. For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended Gadavist dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug prior to re-administration. For patients receiving hemodialysis, consider the prompt initiation of hemodialysis following the administration of a GBCA in order to enhance the contrast agent's elimination [see Use in Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The usefulness of hemodialysis in the prevention of NSF is unknown [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Anaphylactic and other hypersensitivity reactions with cardiovascular, respiratory or cutaneous manifestations, ranging from mild to severe, including death, have uncommonly occurred following Gadavist administration [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
- Before Gadavist administration, assess all patients for any history of a reaction to contrast media, bronchial asthma and/or allergic disorders. These patients may have an increased risk for a hypersensitivity reaction to Gadavist.
- Administer Gadavist only in situations where trained personnel and therapies are promptly available for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, including personnel trained in resuscitation.
Most hypersensitivity reactions to Gadavist have occurred within half an hour after administration. Delayed reactions can occur up to several days after administration. Observe patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions during and following Gadavist administration.
Acute Kidney Injury
In patients with chronic renal impairment, acute kidney injury sometimes requiring dialysis has been observed with the use of some GBCAs. Do not exceed the recommended dose; the risk of acute kidney injury may increase with higher than recommended doses.
Extravasation And Injection Site Reactions
Ensure catheter and venous patency before the injection of Gadavist. Extravasation into tissues during Gadavist administration may result in moderate irritation [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Overestimation Of Extent Of Malignant Disease In MRI Of The Breast
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenicity studies of gadobutrol have been conducted.
Gadobutrol was not mutagenic in in vitro reverse mutation tests in bacteria, in the HGPRT (hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) test using cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, or in chromosome aberration tests in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and was negative in an in vivo micronucleus test in mice after intravenous injection of 0.5 mmol/kg.
Gadobutrol had no effect on fertility and general reproductive performance of male and female rats when given in doses 12.2 times the human equivalent dose (based on body surface area).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Gadavist in pregnant women. GBCAs cross the human placenta. Limited human data on exposure to GBCAs during pregnancy does not show adverse effects in exposed neonates. Animal reproductive studies were conducted (see Animal Data). Embryolethality but no teratogenic effects were observed in monkeys, rabbits and rats. Use Gadavist during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Embryolethality was observed when gadobutrol was administered intravenously to monkeys during organogenesis at doses 8 times the recommended single human dose (based on body surface area); gadobutrol was not maternally toxic or teratogenic at this dose. Embryolethality and retardation of embryonal development also occurred in pregnant rats receiving maternally toxic doses of gadobutrol ( ≥ 7.5 mmol/kg body weight; equivalent to12 times the human dose based on body surface area) and in pregnant rabbits ( ≥ 2.5 mmol/kg body weight; equivalent to 8 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area). In rabbits, this finding occurred without evidence of pronounced maternal toxicity and with minimal placental transfer (0.01% of the administered dose detected in the fetuses).
Gadavist was not teratogenic when given intravenously to monkeys during organogenesis at doses up to 8 times the recommended single human dose (based on body surface area) but was embryolethal at that dose. Because pregnant animals received repeated daily doses of Gadavist, their overall exposure was significantly higher than that achieved with the standard single dose administered to humans.
It is not known whether Gadavist is present in human milk. However, reports on use of other GBCAs indicate that 0.01 to 0.04% of the maternal gadolinium dose is present in breast milk and there is limited GBCA gastrointestinal absorption in the breast-fed infant. In rat lactation studies, gadobutrol was present in milk in amounts less than 0.1% of the dose intravenously administered and the gastrointestinal absorption is poor (approximately 5% of the dose orally administered was excreted in the urine). In lactating rats receiving 0.5 mmol/kg of intravenous [153Gd]-gadobutrol, 0.01% of the total administered radioactivity was transferred to the pup via maternal milk, within 3 hours after administration.
A lactating woman may consider interrupting breastfeeding and pumping and discarding breast milk up to18 hours after Gadavist administration in order to minimize exposure to a breastfed infant.
The safety and effectiveness of Gadavist have been established in pediatric patients born at 37 weeks gestation or later based on imaging and pharmacokinetic data in 138 patients ages 2 to 17 years and 44 patients ages 0 to less than 2 years and extrapolation from adult data. The frequency, type, and severity of adverse reactions in pediatric patients were similar to adverse reactions in adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. No dose adjustment according to age is necessary in pediatric patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Clinical Studies]. The safety and effectiveness of Gadavist have not been established in premature infants.
No case of NSF associated with Gadavist or any other GBCA has been identified in pediatric patients ages 6 years and younger. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that clearance of Gadavist is similar in pediatric patients and adults, including pediatric patients age younger than 2 years. No increased risk factor for NSF has been identified in juvenile animal studies of gadobutrol. Normal estimated GFR (eGFR) is around 30 mL/min/1.73m² at birth and increases to mature levels around 1 year of age, reflecting growth in both glomerular function and relative body surface area. Clinical studies in pediatric patients younger than 1 year of age have been conducted in patients with the following minimum eGFR: 31 mL/min/1.73m² (age 2 to 7 days), 38 mL/min/1.73m² (age 8 to 28 days), 62 mL/min/1.73m² (age 1 to 6 months), and 83 mL/min/1.73m² (age 6 to 12 months).
Juvenile Animal Data
Single and repeat-dose toxicity studies in neonatal and juvenile rats did not reveal findings suggestive of a specific risk for use in pediatric patients including term neonates and infants.
In clinical studies of Gadavist, 1,377 patients were 65 years of age and over, while 104 patients were 80 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, use of Gadavist in elderly patients should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of impaired renal function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy. No dose adjustment according to age is necessary in this population.
Prior to administration of Gadavist, screen all patients for renal dysfunction by obtaining a history and/or laboratory tests [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. No dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment.
Gadavist can be removed from the body by hemodialysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/15/2015
Additional Gadavist Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find out what women really need.