Genital Herpes in Women
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Genital herpes facts
- What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
- What is genital herpes?
- What causes genital herpes?
- What are genital herpes symptoms and signs?
- How is genital herpes diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for genital herpes?
- How can genital herpes be prevented?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for genital herpes?
- Where can people get more information about genital herpes?
Genital herpes facts
- There is no "safe" sex.
- Condoms do not necessarily prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
- Genital herpes is a viral infection that can cause painful genital sores and causes recurrent outbreaks.
- Many people are infected with herpes virus and are not aware of the infection.
- The herpes virus is spread by direct person-to-person contact.
- An infected person may transmit the virus to others even if no symptoms are present.
- There is no cure for genital herpes, but viral shedding and outbreaks can be reduced with antiviral medications.
What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that can be transferred from one person to another through any type of sexual contact. STDs are sometimes referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) since they involve the transmission of a disease-causing microorganism from one person to another during sexual activity. It is important to realize that sexual contact includes more than just sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal). Sexual contact includes kissing, oral-genital contact, and the use of sexual "toys," such as vibrators. STDs probably have been around for thousands of years, but the most dangerous of these conditions, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was only recognized in recent decades.
Many STDs are treatable, but effective cures are lacking for others caused by viruses, such as HIV, HPV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Even gonorrhea, once easily cured, has become resistant to many of the older traditional antibiotics. Many STDs can be present in, and spread by, people who do not have any symptoms of the condition and have not yet been diagnosed with an STD. Therefore, public awareness and education about these infections and the methods of preventing them is important.
There really is no such thing as "safe" sex. The only truly effective way to prevent STDs is abstinence. Sex in the context of a monogamous relationship wherein neither party is infected with a STD also is considered "safe." Most people think that kissing is a safe activity. Unfortunately, syphilis, herpes, and other infections can be contracted through this relatively simple and apparently harmless act. All other forms of sexual contact carry some risk. Condoms are commonly thought to protect against STDs. Condoms are useful in decreasing the spread of certain infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea; however, they do not fully protect against other infections such as genital herpes, genital warts, syphilis, and HIV. Prevention of the spread of STDs is dependent upon the counseling of at-risk individuals and the early diagnosis and treatment of infections.
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