"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Iressa (gefitinib) for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor specific types of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene"...
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Diarrhea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Bullous and Exfoliative Skin Disorders [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Interstitial Lung Disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatic Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Keratitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety evaluation of GILOTRIF is based on the data from more than 3800 patients, including 2135 NSCLC patients receiving GILOTRIF monotherapy at or above the recommended dose.
The data in Tables 1 and 2 below reflect exposure of 229 EGFR-TKI naïve GILOTRIF-treated patients with EGFR mutation-positive, metastatic, non-squamous, NSCLC enrolled in a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial (Study 1). Patients received GILOTRIF 40 mg daily until documented disease progression or intolerance to the therapy. A total of 111 patients were treated with pemetrexed/cisplatin. Patients were treated with pemetrexed 500 mg/m² followed after 30 minutes by cisplatin 75 mg/m² every three weeks for a maximum of six treatment courses.
The median exposure was 11.0 months for patients treated with GILOTRIF and 3.4 months for patients treated with pemetrexed/cisplatin. The overall trial population had a median age of 61 years; 61% of patients in the GILOTRIF arm and 60% of patients in the pemetrexed/cisplatin arm were younger than 65 years. A total of 64% of patients on GILOTRIF and 67% of pemetrexed/cisplatin patients were female. More than two-thirds of patients were from Asia (GILOTRIF 70%; pemetrexed/cisplatin 72%).
Serious adverse reactions were reported in 29% of patients treated with GILOTRIF. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in patients treated with GILOTRIF were diarrhea (6.6%); vomiting (4.8%); and dyspnea, fatigue, and hypokalemia (1.7% each). Fatal adverse reactions in GILOTRIF-treated patients in Study 1 included pulmonary toxicity/ILD-like adverse reactions (1.3%), sepsis (0.43%), and pneumonia (0.43%).
Dose reductions due to adverse reactions were required in 57% of GILOTRIF-treated patients. The most frequent adverse reactions that led to dose reduction in the patients treated with GILOTRIF were diarrhea (20%), rash/acne (19%), paronychia (14%), and stomatitis (10%).
Discontinuation of therapy in GILOTRIF-treated patients for adverse reactions was 14.0%. The most frequent adverse reactions that led to discontinuation in GILOTRIF-treated patients were diarrhea (1.3%), ILD (0.9%), and paronychia (0.9%).
Clinical trials of GILOTRIF excluded patients with an abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e., below the institutional lower limit of normal. In Study 1, all patients were evaluated for LVEF at screening and every 9 weeks thereafter in the GILOTRIF-treated group and as needed in the pemetrexed/cisplatin group. More GILOTRIF-treated patients (2.2%; n=5) experienced ventricular dysfunction (defined as diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, or ventricular dilation; all < Grade 3) compared to chemotherapy-treated patients (0.9%; n=1).
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 10% of
GILOTRIF-Treated Patients in Study 1
|All Grades (%)||Grade 3* (%)||All Grades (%)||Grade 3* (%)|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Infections and infestations|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|*None of the adverse reactions
in this table except stomatitis (one patient on GILOTRIF [0.4%]) were Grade 4
1Includes stomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, mucosal inflammation, mouth ulceration, oral mucosa erosion, mucosal erosion, mucosal ulceration
2Includes group of rash preferred terms, acne, acne pustular, dermatitis acneiform
3Includes paronychia, nail infection, nail bed infection
Table 2 : Adverse Reactions
of Laboratory Abnormalities from the Investigations SOC Reported in ≥ 5%
of GILOTRIF-Treated Patients in Study 1
|All Grades (%)||Grades 3-4 (%)||All Grades (%)||Grades 3-4 (%)|
|Alanine aminotransferase increased||11||2||4||0|
|Aspartate aminotransferase increased||8||2||2||1|
|1Includes hypokalemia, blood potassium decreased SOC=system organ class|
Read the Gilotrif (afatinib tablets, for oral use) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) Inhibitors and Inducers
Oral administration of a P-gp inhibitor (ritonavir at 200 mg twice daily) 1 hour before administration of GILOTRIF increased systemic exposure to afatinib by 48%. There was no change in afatinib exposure when ritonavir was administered simultaneously with or 6 hours after GILOTRIF. Concomitant taking of P-gp inhibitors (including but not limited to ritonavir, cyclosporine A, ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, verapamil, quinidine, tacrolimus, nelfinavir, saquinavir, and amiodarone) with GILOTRIF can increase exposure to afatinib [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Co-administration with oral dose of a P-gp inducer (rifampicin at 600 mg once daily for 7 days) decreased exposure to afatinib by 34%. Concomitant taking of P-gp inducers (including but not limited to rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and St. John's wort) with GILOTRIF can decrease exposure to afatinib [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/23/2015
Additional Gilotrif Information
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