Andrew A. Dahl, MD, FACS
Andrew A. Dahl, MD, is a board-certified ophthalmologist. Dr. Dahl's educational background includes a BA with Honors and Distinction from Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, and an MD from Cornell University, where he was selected for Alpha Omega Alpha, the national medical honor society. He had an internal medical internship at the New York Hospital/Cornell Medical Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Glaucoma facts
- What is glaucoma?
- How common is glaucoma?
- What causes glaucoma?
- What are glaucoma risk factors?
- What are the different types of glaucoma?
- What are glaucoma symptoms and signs?
- How is glaucoma diagnosed?
- How often should someone be checked (screened) for glaucoma?
- What is the treatment for glaucoma?
- Glaucoma medications (eyedrops)
- Glaucoma surgery or laser
- Can glaucoma be prevented?
- What is in the future for glaucoma?
- Find a local Eye Doctor in your town
How often should someone be checked (screened) for glaucoma?
The following are the American Academy of Ophthalmology's recommended intervals for eye exams:
- Age 20 to 29: Individuals of African descent or with a family history of glaucoma should have an eye examination every 3 to 5 years. Others should have an eye exam at least once during this period.
- Age 30 to 39: Individuals of African descent or with a family history of glaucoma should have an eye examination every 2 to 4 years. Others should have an eye exam at least twice during this period.
- Age 40 to 64: Individuals should have an eye examination every 2 to 4 years.
- Age 65 or older: Individuals should have an eye examination every 1 to 2 years.
These routine screening eye examinations are mandatory since glaucoma usually causes no symptoms (asymptomatic) in its early stages. Once damage to the optic nerve has occurred, it cannot be reversed. Thus, in order to preserve vision, glaucoma must be diagnosed early and followed regularly. Patients with glaucoma need to be aware that it is a lifelong disease. Compliance with scheduled visits to the eye doctor and with prescribed medication regimens offers the best chance for maintaining vision.
What is the treatment for glaucoma?
Although nerve damage and visual loss from glaucoma cannot usually be reversed, glaucoma is a disease that can generally be controlled. That is, treatment can make the intraocular pressure normal and, therefore, prevent or retard further nerve damage and visual loss. Treatment may involve the use of eyedrop medications, pills (rarely), laser, or incisional surgery.
In the United States, eyedrop medications are usually used first in treating most types of open-angle glaucoma. In contrast, in Europe, laser or surgery is sometimes the first choice of treatment. One or more types of eyedrops may have to be taken up to several times a day to lower intraocular pressure. These drops work either by reducing the production of the aqueous fluid (shutting the faucet) or by increasing the drainage of the fluid out of the eye. Each type of therapy has its benefits and potential complications.
It is important to remember that many patients at risk for glaucoma or who have glaucoma also may have other eye diseases such as cataract or macular degeneration. An ophthalmologist can determine whether any visual loss that one is experiencing is being caused by glaucoma or by other eye abnormalities.
There are many patients whose examination reveals increased risk for glaucoma but no definite evidence of eye damage from glaucoma. These patients have what is termed ocular hypertension (OHT), formerly known as "pre-glaucoma" or "glaucoma suspect." Patients with OHT have no visual field loss but are at increased risk of glaucoma because of the presence of elevated intra-ocular pressure or optic nerve changes visible on ophthalmoscopy or imaging. Some of the patients with OHT require treatment. These patients with OHT need to be observed frequently so that treatment can be initiated prior to the onset of glaucomatous damage.
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