"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus. Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that is adminis"...
Mechanism Of Action
Glucagon induces liver glycogen breakdown, releasing glucose from the liver. Hepatic stores of glycogen are necessary for glucagon to produce an antihypoglycemic effect.
Gastrointestinal Motility Inhibition
For the Treatment of Severe Hypoglycemia
Blood glucose concentration rises within 10 minutes of injection and maximal concentrations are attained at approximately 30 minutes after injection (see Figure 1). The duration of hyperglycemic action after intravenous or intramuscular injection is 60–90 minutes.
Figure 1: Recovery from Insulin Induced Hypoglycemia (mean blood glucose) After Intramuscular Injection of 1 mg GlucaGen® in Type I Diabetic Men
For Use as a Diagnostic Aid
Table 2: Pharmacodynamic Properties of Glucagon
|Route of Administration||Dose*||Time of Maximal Glucose Concentration||Time of Onset of Action for GI Smooth Muscle Relaxation||Duration of Smooth Muscle Relaxation1|
|IV||0.25-0.5 mg (0.25-0.5 units)||5-20 minutes||45 seconds||9-17 minutes|
|2 mg (2 units)||5-20 minutes||45 seconds||22-25 minutes|
|IM||1 mg (1 unit)||30 minutes||8-10 minutes||12-27 minutes|
|2 mg (2 units)||30 minutes||4-7 minutes||21-32 minutes|
|*The usual diagnostic dose for relaxation of the stomach,
duodenal bulb, duodenum, and small bowel is 0.2–0.5 mg given intravenously or 1
mg given intramuscularly; the usual dose to relax the colon is 0.5–0.75 mg
intravenously and 1–2 mg intramuscularly.
1 Note: The time of maximal glucose concentration for GlucaGen® administered subcutaneously is 30-45 minutes.
Intramuscular injection of 1 mg GlucaGen® resulted in a mean Cmax (CV%) of 1686 pg/mL (43%) and median Tmax of 12.5 minutes. The mean apparent half-life of 45 minutes after intramuscular injection probably reflects prolonged absorption from the injection site. Glucagon is degraded in the liver, kidney, and plasma.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/16/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional GlucaGen Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find tips and advances in treatment.