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Glucophage, Glucophage XR
(metformin hydrochloride) Tablets
(metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets
GLUCOPHAGE® (metformin hydrochloride) Tablets and GLUCOPHAGE® XR (metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets are oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. The structural formula is as shown:
Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5• HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68.
GLUCOPHAGE tablets contain 500 mg, 850 mg, or 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride. Each tablet contains the inactive ingredients povidone and magnesium stearate. In addition, the coating for the 500 mg and 850 mg tablets contains hypromellose and the coating for the 1000 mg tablet contains hypromellose and polyethylene glycol.
GLUCOPHAGE XR contains 500 mg or 750 mg of metformin hydrochloride as the active ingredient.
GLUCOPHAGE XR 500 mg tablets contain the inactive ingredients sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate.
GLUCOPHAGE XR 750 mg tablets contain the inactive ingredients sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hypromellose, and magnesium stearate.
System Components and Performance
GLUCOPHAGE XR comprises a dual hydrophilic polymer matrix system. Metformin hydrochloride is combined with a drug release controlling polymer to form an “inner” phase, which is then incorporated as discrete particles into an “external” phase of a second polymer. After administration, fluid from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract enters the tablet, causing the polymers to hydrate and swell. Drug is released slowly from the dosage form by a process of diffusion through the gel matrix that is essentially independent of pH. The hydrated polymer system is not rigid and is expected to be broken up by normal peristalsis in the GI tract. The biologically inert components of the tablet may occasionally remain intact during GI transit and will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass.
What are the possible side effects of metformin (Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
This medication may cause lactic acidosis (a build-up of lactic acid in the body, which can be fatal). Lactic acidosis can start slowly and get worse over time. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms of lactic acidosis, such as:
- muscle pain or weakness;
- numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs;
What are the precautions when taking metformin hcl (Glucophage, Glucophage XR)?
See also Warning section.
Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to metformin; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe breathing problems (such as obstructive lung disease, severe asthma), blood problems (such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency), kidney disease, liver disease.
Before having surgery or any X-ray/scanning procedure using injectable iodinated contrast material, tell your doctor that you are taking this medication. You will need to temporarily stop this medication before...
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/6/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Glucophage, Glucophage XR Information
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Drug Interactions Center: metformin oral
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Side Effects Center
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR in detail including Side Effects and Drug Images
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Overview including Precautions
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
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