"What are oral diabetes medications and how do they work?
Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the pancreas called beta cells. Insulin helps the body use blood glucose (a type of sugar) for energy. People with type 2 diabetes "...
Glucophage, Glucophage XR
In a US double-blind clinical study of GLUCOPHAGE in patients with type 2 diabetes, a total of 141 patients received GLUCOPHAGE therapy (up to 2550 mg per day) and 145 patients received placebo. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of the GLUCOPHAGE patients, and that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE- than placebo-treated patients, are listed in Table 11.
Table 11: Most Common Adverse Reactions ( > 5.0 Percent)
in a Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of GLUCOPHAGE Monotherapy*
|% of Patients|
|* Reactions that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE- than placebo-treated patients.|
Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 6% of patients treated with GLUCOPHAGE. Additionally, the following adverse reactions were reported in ≥ 1.0% to ≤ 5.0% of GLUCOPHAGE patients and were more commonly reported with GLUCOPHAGE than placebo: abnormal stools, hypoglycemia, myalgia, lightheaded, dyspnea, nail disorder, rash, sweating increased, taste disorder, chest discomfort, chills, flu syndrome, flushing, palpitation.
In worldwide clinical trials over 900 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with GLUCOPHAGE XR in placebo- and active-controlled studies. In placebo-controlled trials, 781 patients were administered GLUCOPHAGE XR and 195 patients received placebo. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of the GLUCOPHAGE XR patients, and that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE XR- than placebo-treated patients, are listed in Table 12.
Table 12: Most Common Adverse Reactions ( > 5.0 Percent)
in Placebo-Controlled Studies of GLUCOPHAGE XR*
|Adverse Reaction||GLUCOPHAGE XR
|% of Patients|
|* Reactions that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE XR- than placebo-treated patients.|
Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 0.6% of patients treated with GLUCOPHAGE XR. Additionally, the following adverse reactions were reported in ≥ 1.0% to ≤ 5.0% of GLUCOPHAGE XR patients and were more commonly reported with GLUCOPHAGE XR than placebo: abdominal pain, constipation, distention abdomen, dyspepsia/heartburn, flatulence, dizziness, headache, upper respiratory infection, taste disturbance.
In clinical trials with GLUCOPHAGE in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes, the profile of adverse reactions was similar to that observed in adults.
Read the Glucophage, Glucophage XR (metformin hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
(Clinical Evaluation of DRUG INTERACTIONS Conducted with GLUCOPHAGE)
In a single-dose interaction study in type 2 diabetes patients, coadministration of metformin and glyburide did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Decreases in glyburide AUC and Cmax were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects, makes the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients).
A single-dose, metformin-furosemide drug interaction study in healthy subjects demonstrated that pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were affected by coadministration. Furosemide increased the metformin plasma and blood Cmax by 22% and blood AUC by 15%, without any significant change in metformin renal clearance. When administered with metformin, the Cmax and AUC of furosemide were 31% and 12% smaller, respectively, than when administered alone, and the terminal half-life was decreased by 32%, without any significant change in furosemide renal clearance. No information is available about the interaction of metformin and furosemide when coadministered chronically.
A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that coadministration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin Cmax and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount excreted in the urine. Tmax and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on nifedipine.
Cationic drugs (e.g., amiloride, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, or vancomycin) that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion theoretically have the potential for interaction with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Such interaction between metformin and oral cimetidine has been observed in normal healthy volunteers in both single- and multiple-dose, metformin-cimetidine drug interaction studies, with a 60% increase in peak metformin plasma and whole blood concentrations and a 40% increase in plasma and whole blood metformin AUC. There was no change in elimination half-life in the single-dose study. Metformin had no effect on cimetidine pharmacokinetics. Although such interactions remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and/or the interfering drug is recommended in patients who are taking cationic medications that are excreted via the proximal renal tubular secretory system.
Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when coadministered in single-dose interaction studies.
Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins.
Read the Glucophage, Glucophage XR Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/6/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Glucophage, Glucophage XR Information
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Drug Interactions Center: metformin oral
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Side Effects Center
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR in detail including Side Effects and Drug Images
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR Overview including Precautions
- Glucophage, Glucophage XR FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
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