"What are oral diabetes medications and how do they work?
Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the pancreas called beta cells. Insulin helps the body use blood glucose (a type of sugar) for energy. People with type 2 diabetes "...
GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
There is no fixed dosage regimen for the management of diabetes mellitus with GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) Extended Release Tablet or any other hypoglycemic agent. Glycemic control should be monitored with hemoglobin A1C and/or blood-glucose levels to determine the minimum effective dose for the patient; to detect primary failure, i.e., inadequate lowering of blood glucose at the maximum recommended dose of medication; and to detect secondary failure, i.e., loss of an adequate blood-glucose-lowering response after an initial period of effectiveness. Home blood-glucose monitoring may also provide useful information to the patient and physician. Short-term administration of GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) Extended Release Tablet may be sufficient during periods of transient loss of control in patients usually controlled on diet. In general, GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) should be given with breakfast.
The usual starting dose of GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) as initial therapy is 5 mg per day, given with breakfast. Those patients who may be more sensitive to hypoglycemic drugs may be started at a lower dose.
Dosage adjustment should be based on laboratory measures of glycemic control. While fasting blood-glucose levels generally reach steady-state following initiation or change in GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) dosage, a single fasting glucose determination may not accurately reflect the response to therapy. In most cases, hemoglobin A1C level measured at three month intervals is the preferred means of monitoring response to therapy.
Hemoglobin A1C should be measured as GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) therapy is initiated and repeated approximately three months later. If the result of this test suggests that glycemic control over the preceding three months was inadequate, the GLUCOTROL XL dose may be increased. Subsequent dosage adjustments should be made on the basis of hemoglobin A1C levels measured at three month intervals. If no improvement is seen after three months of therapy with a higher dose, the previous dose should be resumed. Decisions which utilize fasting blood glucose to adjust GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) therapy should be based on at least two or more similar, consecutive values obtained seven days or more after the previous dose adjustment.
Most patients will be controlled with 5 mg to 10 mg taken once daily. However, some patients may require up to the maximum recommended daily dose of 20 mg. While the glycemic control of selected patients may improve with doses which exceed 10 mg, clinical studies conducted to date have not demonstrated an additional group average reduction of hemoglobin A1C beyond what was achieved with the 10 mg dose.
Based on the results of a randomized crossover study, patients receiving immediate release glipizide may be switched safely to GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) Extended Release Tablets once-a-day at the nearest equivalent total daily dose. Patients receiving immediate release Glucotrol also may be titrated to the appropriate dose of GLUCOTROL XL starting with 5 mg once daily. The decision to switch to the nearest equivalent dose or to titrate should be based on clinical judgment.
In elderly patients, debilitated or malnourished patients, and patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, the initial and maintenance dosing should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions (see PRECAUTIONS section).
When adding other blood-glucose-lowering agents to GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) for combination therapy, the agent should be initiated at the lowest recommended dose, and patients should be observed carefully for hypoglycemia. Refer to the product information supplied with the oral agent for additional information.
When adding GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) to other blood-glucose-lowering agents, GLUCOTROL XL can be initiated at 5 mg. Those patients who may be more sensitive to hypoglycemic drugs may be started at a lower dose. Titration should be based on clinical judgment.
Patients Receiving Insulin
As with other sulfonylurea-class hypoglycemics, many patients with stable type 2 diabetes receiving insulin may be transferred safely to treatment with GLUCOTROL XL Extended Release Tablets. When transferring patients from insulin to GLUCOTROL XL, the following general guidelines should be considered:
For patients whose daily insulin requirement is 20 units or less, insulin may be discontinued and GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) therapy may begin at usual dosages. Several days should elapse between titration steps.
For patients whose daily insulin requirement is greater than 20 units, the insulin dose should be reduced by 50% and GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) therapy may begin at usual dosages. Subsequent reductions in insulin dosage should depend on individual patient response.
Several days should elapse between titration steps.
During the insulin withdrawal period, the patient should test urine samples for sugar and ketone bodies at least three times daily.
Patients should be instructed to contact the prescriber immediately if these tests are abnormal. In some cases, especially when the patient has been receiving greater than 40 units of insulin daily, it may be advisable to consider hospitalization during the transition period.
Patients Receiving Other Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
As with other sulfonylurea-class hypoglycemics, no transition period is necessary when transferring patients to GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) Extended Release Tablets. Patients should be observed carefully (1–2 weeks) for hypoglycemia when being transferred from longer half-life sulfonylureas (e.g., chlorpropamide) to GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) due to potential overlapping of drug effect.
GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide) Extended Release Tablets are supplied as 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg round, biconvex tablets and imprinted with black ink as follows:
2.5 mg tablets are blue and imprinted with “GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) 2.5” on one side.
Bottles of 30: NDC 0049-1620-30
5 mg tablets are white and imprinted with “GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) 5” on one side. Bottles of 100: NDC 0049-1550-66
Bottles of 500: NDC 0049-1550-73
10 mg tablets are white and imprinted with “GLUCOTROL XL (glipizide extended release) 10” on one side. Bottles of 100: NDC 0049-1560-66
Bottles of 500: NDC 0049-1560-73
The tablets should be protected from moisture and humidity and stored at controlled room temperature,
Distributed by: Roerig., Division of Pfizer Inc., NY, NY 10017. September 2008. FDA rev date: 10/27/2008
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/8/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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