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Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
In clinical trials conducted in the U.S., over 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have been treated with GLUMETZA 1500–2000 mg/day in active-controlled and placebo-controlled studies with the 500 mg dosage form.
In the 24-week monotherapy trial comparing GLUMETZA to immediate-release metformin, serious adverse reactions were reported in 3.6% (19/528) of the GLUMETZA-treated patients compared to 2.9% (5/174) of the patients treated with immediate-release metformin. In the add-on to sulfonylurea study, patients receiving background glyburide therapy were randomized to receive add-on treatment of either one of three different regimens of GLUMETZA or placebo. In total, 431 patients received GLUMETZA and glyburide and 144 patients received placebo and glyburide. A serious adverse reaction was reported in 2.1% (9/431) of the GLUMETZA and glyburide-treated patients compared to 1.4% (2/144) of the placebo and glyburide-treated patients. When the data from the monotherapy and add-on to sulfonylurea clinical trials were combined, the most frequently (incidence ≥ 0.5 %) reported serious adverse reactions classified by system organ class were gastrointestinal disorders (1.0% of GLUMETZA-treated patients compared to 0% of patients not treated with GLUMETZA) and cardiac disorders (0.4% of GLUMETZA-treated patients compared to 0.5% of patients not treated with GLUMETZA). Only 2 serious adverse reactions (unstable angina [n=2] and pancreatitis [n=2]) were reported in more than one GLUMETZA-treated patient.
Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of patients treated with GLUMETZA that were more common in the combined GLUMETZA and glyburide group than in the placebo and glyburide group are shown in Table 1.
In 0.7% of patients treated with GLUMETZA and glyburide, diarrhea was responsible for discontinuation of study medication compared to no patients in the placebo and glyburide group.
Table 1: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported
By >5H* of Patients for the Combined GLUMETZA Groups Venus Placebo Group
|Adverse Reaction||GLUMETZA + Ghburide
|Placebo + Glyburide
(n = 144)
|* ARs that were more common in the GLUMETZA-treated than in the placebo- treated patients|
Vitamin B12 concentrations
Metformin may lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on GLUMETZA and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. (See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS)
Read the Glumetza (metformin hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently decrease serum bicarbonate and induce nonunion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs may induce metabolic acidosis. Use these drugs with caution in patients treated with metformin, as the risk of lactic acidosis may increase.
Cationic drugs (e.g., amiloride, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, or vancomycin) that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion theoretically have the potential for interaction with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of GLUMETZA and/or the interfering drug is recommendedin patients who are taking cationic medications that are excreted via the proximal renal tubular secretory system.
Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control
Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving GLUMETZA, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving GLUMETZA, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
Read the Glumetza Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/27/2016
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