William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Gout and hyperuricemia facts
- What is gout? What is hyperuricemia?
- Who is affected by gout?
- What are gout causes and risk factors?
- What are gout symptoms and signs?
- How is gouty arthritis diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for gout?
- Gout diet
- Gout medications
- What are complications of gout?
- Can gout be prevented?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with gout?
- What does the future hold for patients with gout and hyperuricemia?
- Take the Gout Quiz
- Gout Slideshow
- Slideshow: Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Gout FAQs
- Find a local Rheumatologist in your town
Who is affected by gout?
Over 8 million people in the United States suffer from gout. (Did you know that none other than Benjamin Franklin had terribly painful gouty arthritis?) Gout is nine times more common in men than in women. It predominantly attacks males after puberty, with a peak age of 75. In women, gout attacks usually occur after menopause.
While an elevated blood level of uric acid may indicate an increased risk of gout, the relationship between hyperuricemia and gout is unclear. Many patients with hyperuricemia do not develop gout (asymptomatic hyperuricemia), while some patients with repeated gout attacks have normal or low blood uric acid levels. In fact, the blood level of uric acid often lowers during an acute attack of gout. Among the male population in the United States, approximately 10% have hyperuricemia. However, only a small portion of those with hyperuricemia will actually develop gout.
What are gout causes and risk factors?
In addition to an inherited abnormality in handling uric acid, other risk factors for developing gout include obesity, excessive weight gain (especially in youth), moderate to heavy alcohol intake, high blood pressure, and abnormal kidney function. Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide [Dyazide]), low-dose aspirin, niacin, cyclosporine, tuberculosis medications (pyrazinamide and ethambutol), and others can also cause elevated uric acid levels in the blood and lead to gout. Furthermore, certain diseases lead to excessive production of uric acid in the body. Examples of these diseases include leukemias, lymphomas, and hemoglobin disorders.
Learn more about: Dyazide
Interestingly, one study demonstrated an increased prevalence of abnormally low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) in patients with gout.
In patients at risk of developing gout, certain conditions can precipitate acute attacks of gout. These conditions include dehydration, injury to the joint, fever, excessive eating, heavy alcohol intake, and recent surgery. Gout attacks triggered by recent surgery are probably related to changes in the body-fluid balance as patients temporarily discontinue normal oral fluid intake in preparation for and after their operation.
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