William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Gout and hyperuricemia facts
- What is gout? What is hyperuricemia?
- Who is affected by gout?
- What are gout causes and risk factors?
- What are gout symptoms and signs?
- How is gouty arthritis diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for gout?
- Gout diet
- Gout medications
- What are complications of gout?
- Can gout be prevented?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with gout?
- What does the future hold for patients with gout and hyperuricemia?
- Take the Gout Quiz
- Gout Slideshow
- Slideshow: Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Gout FAQs
- Find a local Rheumatologist in your town
What does the future hold for patients with gout and hyperuricemia?
Active research is ongoing in a variety of fields related to gout and hyperuricemia. The management of chronic gouty disease and its relationship to improving blood pressure and kidney function is becoming better defined.
Scientists have reported that high animal protein intake slightly increased the risk for gout. Others found that dietary calcium intake may protect patients from getting gout attacks. Vitamin C may also lower blood uric acid levels.
New medications to increase the elimination of uric acid in the urine (such as benzbromarone) are being evaluated in clinical trials. Researchers are also reporting on experimental drugs that can affect chemical messengers involved in gouty inflammation called interleukins.
The optimal regimens for the treatment of acute gout attacks and chronic gout conditions still require further long-term studies. Research scientists will continue to develop less toxic and more effective medications to battle this "scourge of the ages."
Choi, J.W.J., et al. "Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third Health and Nutrition Examination Survey." Arthritis and Rheumatism. 59 (2008): 109-116.
Edwards, N.L. "Clinical gout." Rheumatology 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier, 2011: 1859-1865.
Emmerson, B.T. "The management of gout." N Engl J Med 334.7 (1996): 445-451.
Klippel, John H., et al., eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. New York: Springer and Arthritis Foundation, 2008.
Ruddy, Shaun, et al., eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001.
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