July 23, 2016
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Hand-Foot-And-Mouth Syndrome (cont.)

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Why haven't we heard more about hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Recognition of hand, foot, and mouth disease is relatively recent (when contrasted with mumps, measles, and chickenpox, for example). HFMD was first reported in 1956 in Australia. By the early 1960s, it had emerged as a common childhood illness around the world.

How do doctors diagnose hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Usually, the diagnosis of HFMD is made on a combination of clinical history and characteristic physical findings. Laboratory confirmation is rarely necessary unless severe complications develop.

What is the treatment for hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Therapy for HFMD is directed toward symptomatic relief of fever and sore throat. Antibiotics are not indicated for this viral disease.

What are complications of hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Complications of HFMD are relatively rare. The more common cause of HFMD (Coxsackievirus A16) is less likely to cause complications when compared with enterovirus-71.

Complications include the following:

  1. "Aseptic" (also called "viral") meningitis (rare): Symptoms of meningitis are moderate-severe headache, discomfort when bending the head forward (classically tested by trying to touch the chin to the chest), and nausea and vomiting. Meningitis is an infection of the tissues and spinal fluid that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. The diagnosis is confirmed by a lumbar puncture (also known as a "spinal tap"). Depending upon severity of the patient's symptoms, they may need to be hospitalized.
  2. Encephalitis (brain infection): Encephalitis is much less common but more ominous when compared with meningitis and requires hospitalization for close monitoring.
  3. Occasionally, the virus may infect the heart muscle fibers and thus compromise the heart's blood-pumping capabilities.
  4. Young infants may very rarely become dehydrated due to refusal to take oral fluids as a consequence of mouth pain.
  5. In very rare circumstances, the skin vesicles may develop a secondary bacterial infection. A short course of antibiotics are used to treat the secondary infection.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/20/2016

Source: MedicineNet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/hand-foot-and-mouth_syndrome/article.htm

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