Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) facts
- What is Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)?
- What causes HSP?
- What are risk factors for HSP?
- What are HSP symptoms and signs?
- How is HSP diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for HSP?
- What are complications of HSP?
- What is the prognosis for patients with HSP?
- Can HSP be prevented?
What are risk factors for HSP?
The only known risk factors for HSP are exposure to certain viruses and drugs. The reaction to these agents that leads to HSP is not, however, predictable.
What are HSP symptoms and signs?
Classically, HSP causes a purple-appearing skin rash, pain in the abdomen, and joint inflammation (arthritis). Not all features need be present for the diagnosis. The rash of skin lesions appears in gravity-dependent areas, such as the legs. The joints most frequently affected with pain and swelling are the ankles and the knees. Patients with HSP can develop fever. Inflammation of the blood vessels in the kidneys (nephritis) can cause blood and/or protein in the urine. Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding is more common in children than in adults. Serious kidney complications are infrequent but can occur.
Symptoms usually last approximately a month. Recurrences are not frequent but do occur.
How is HSP diagnosed?
HSP is usually diagnosed based on the typical skin, joint, and kidney findings. Throat culture, urinalysis, and blood tests for inflammation and kidney function are used to suggest the diagnosis. A biopsy of the skin, and less commonly kidneys, can be used to demonstrate vasculitis. Special staining techniques (direct immunofluorescence) of the biopsy specimen can be used with microscopic examination to document antibody deposits of IgA in the blood vessels of involved tissue.
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