"Male twin Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were more than twice as likely as those without PTSD to develop heart disease during a 13-year period, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health."...
Heparin sodium is indicated for:
Treatment of acute and chronic consumption coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular
Prevention of clotting in arterial and heart surgery;
Anticoagulant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension;
(In a low-dose regimen) for prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing major abdomino-thoracic surgery or who for other reasons are at risk of developing thromboembolic disease (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION);
Prophylaxis and treatment of pulmonary embolism;
Prophylaxis and treatment of peripheral arterial embolism.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Heparin sodium is not effective by oral administration and should be given by intermittent intravenous injection, after dilution in 50 or 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, or by intravenous infusion.
The dosage of heparin sodium should be adjusted according to the patient's coagulation test results. When heparin is given by continuous intravenous infusion, the coagulation time should be determined approximately every 4 hours in the early stages of treatment. When the drug is administered intermittently by intravenous injection, coagulation tests should be performed before each injection during the early stages of treatment and at appropriate intervals thereafter. Dosage is considered adequate when the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is 1.5 to 2 times normal or when the whole blood clotting time is elevated approximately 2.5 to 3 times the control value.
Periodic platelet counts, hematocrits and tests for occult blood in stool are recommended during the entire course of heparin therapy.
Converting to Oral Anticoagulant
When an oral anticoagulant of the coumarin or similar type is to be begun in patients already receiving heparin sodium, baseline and subsequent tests of prothrombin activity must be determined at a time when heparin activity is too low to affect the prothrombin time. If continuous I.V. heparin infusion is used, prothrombin time can usually be measured at any time.
In converting from heparin to an oral anticoagulant, the dose of the oral anticoagulant should be the usual initial amount and thereafter prothrombin time should be determined at the usual intervals. To ensure continuous anticoagulation, it is advisable to continue full heparin therapy for several days after the prothrombin time has reached the therapeutic range. Heparin therapy may then be discontinued without tapering.
Therapeutic Anticoagulant Effect with Full-Dose Heparin
Although dosage must be adjusted for the individual patient according to the results of suitable laboratory tests, the following dosage schedules may be used as guidelines:
|Method of Administration||Frequency||Recommended dose*|
|Intermittent Intravenous Injection||Initial Dose||10,000 Units, in 50—100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection|
|Every 4 to 6 hours||5000—10,000 Units, in 50—100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection|
|Continuous Intravenous Infusion||Initial Dose||5000 Units by I.V. Injection|
|Continuous||20,000—40,000 Units/24 hours in 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection|
|* Based on 150 lb. (68 kg) patient.|
There are no adequate and well controlled studies on heparin use in pediatric patients. Pediatric dosing recommendations are based on clinical experience. In general, the following dosage schedule may be used as a guideline in pediatric patients:
Initial Dose: 75 to 100 units/kg (IV bolus over 10 minutes)
Maintenance Dose Infants: 25 to 30 units/kg/hour;
Infants < 2 months have the highest requirements (average 28 units/kg/hour)
Children > 1 year of age: 18 to 20 units/kg/hour;
Older children may require less heparin, similar to weight-adjusted adult dosage
Adjust heparin to maintain a PTT of 60 to 85 seconds, assuming this reflects an anti-Factor Xa level of 0.35 to 0.70.
Surgery of the Heart and Blood Vessels
Patients undergoing total body perfusion for open-heart surgery should receive an initial dose of not less than 150 units of heparin sodium per kilogram of body weight. Frequently, a dose of 300 units per kilogram is used for procedures estimated to last less than 60 minutes or 400 units per kilogram for those estimated to last longer than 60 minutes.
Low-Dose Prophylaxis of Postoperative Thromboembolism
A number of well-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that low-dose heparin prophylaxis, given just prior to and after surgery, will reduce the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in the legs (as measured by the I-125 fibrinogen technique and venography) and of clinical pulmonary embolism. The most widely used dosage has been 5,000 units 2 hours before surgery and 5,000 units every 8 to 12 hours thereafter for 7 days or until the patient is fully ambulatory, whichever is longer. A concentrated solution of heparin sodium is recommended. Such prophylaxis should be reserved for patients over the age of 40 who are undergoing major surgery. Patients with bleeding disorders and those having brain or spinal cord surgery, spinal anesthesia, eye surgery, or potentially sanguineous operations should be excluded, as should patients receiving oral anticoagulants or platelet-active drugs (see WARNINGS). The value of such prophylaxis in hip surgery has not been established. The possibility of increased bleeding during surgery or postoperatively should be borne in mind. If such bleeding occurs, discontinuance of heparin and neutralization with protamine sulfate are advisable. If clinical evidence of thromboembolism develops despite low-dose prophylaxis, full therapeutic doses of anticoagulants should be given unless contraindicated. Prior to initiating heparinization the physician should rule out bleeding disorders by appropriate history and laboratory tests, and appropriate coagulation tests should be repeated just prior to surgery. Coagulation test values should be normal or only slightly elevated at these times.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Slight discoloration does not alter potency. See PRECAUTIONS.
Instructions For Use
To Open Diluent Container
Peel overwrap from the corner and remove container. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. The opacity will diminish gradually.
To Assemble Vial and Flexible Diluent Container: (Use Aseptic Technique)
1. Remove the protective covers from the top of the vial and the vial port on the diluent container as follows:
a. To remove the breakaway vial cap, swing the pull ring over the top of the vial and pull down far enough to start the opening (see Figure 1.), then pull straight up to remove the cap. (see Figure 2.) NOTE: Once the breakaway cap has been removed, do not access vial with syringe.
b. To remove the vial port cover, grasp the tab on the pull ring, pull up to break the three tie strings, then pull back to remove the cover. (see Figure 3.)
2. Screw the vial into the vial port until it will go no further. THE VIAL MUST BE SCREWED IN TIGHTLY TO ASSURE A SEAL. This occurs approximately ½ turn (180°) after the first audible click. (see Figure 4.) The clicking sound does not assure a seal; the vial must be turned as far as it will go. NOTE: Once vial is seated, do not attempt to remove. (see Figure 4.)
3. Recheck the vial to assure that it is tight by trying to turn it further in the direction of assembly.
4. Label appropriately
To Prepare Admixture
1. Squeeze the bottom of the diluent container gently to inflate the portion of the container surrounding the end of the drug vial.
2. With the other hand, push the drug vial down into the container telescoping the walls of the container. Grasp the inner cap of the vial through the walls of the container. (see Figure 5.)
3. Pull the inner cap from the drug vial. (see Figure 6.) Verify that the rubber stopper has been pulled out, allowing the drug and diluent to mix.
4. Mix container contents thoroughly and use within the specified time.
Preparation for Administration (Use Aseptic Technique)
- Confirm the activation and admixture of vial contents.
- Check for leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are found, discard unit as sterility may be impaired.
- Close flow control clamp of administration set.
- Remove cover from outlet port at bottom of container.
- Insert piercing pin of administration set into port with a twisting motion until the pin is firmly seated. NOTE: See full directions on administration set carton.
- Lift the free end of the hanger loop on the bottom of the vial, breaking the two tie strings. Bend the loop outward to lock it in the upright position, then suspend container from hanger.
- Squeeze and release drip chamber to establish proper fluid level in chamber.
- Open flow control clamp and clear air from set. Close clamp.
- Attach set to venipuncture device. If device is not indwelling, prime and make venipuncture.
- Regulate rate of administration with flow control clamp.
WARNING: Do not use flexible container in series connections.
Heparin Sodium Injection, USP is supplied in the ADD-Vantage™ vials as follows:
|NDC No.||Total Volume||Total Units Heparin/vial||Total mg Sodium Chloride/vial|
Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Caution: Federal (USA) law prohibits dispensing without prescription.
Revised: October, 2011. Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/23/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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