John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Hiccup facts
- What are hiccups?
- What causes hiccups?
- What are the symptoms of hiccups?
- When should I contact my doctor for hiccups?
- How are hiccups diagnosed?
- What is the treatment or cure for hiccups?
- Are there any complications of hiccups?
- Can hiccups be prevented?
What causes hiccups?
Most of the time, there is no obvious cause for hiccups. However, there are some common known causes of hiccups.
Some causes of hiccups include:
- Eating too quickly and swallowing air along with foods.
- Eating too much (fatty or spicy foods, in particular) or drinking too much (carbonated beverages or alcohol) can distend the stomach and irritate the diaphragm, which can cause hiccups.
- Any disease or disorder that irritates the nerves that control the diaphragm (such as liver disease, pneumonia, or other lung disorders).
- Abdominal surgery can also irritate the nerves that control the diaphragm, causing hiccups.
- Strokes or brain tumors involving the brain stem, and some chronic medical disorders (such as renal failure) have also been reported to cause hiccups.
Some medications may also have hiccups as a side effect, for example:
- medications for acid reflux
- most benzodiazepines, including diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), and lorazepam (Ativan)
- levodopa, nicotine, and ondansetron (Zofran)
- noxious fumes can also trigger hiccups.
- sudden changes in temperature
- fear or excitement
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