John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Hiccup facts
- What are hiccups?
- What causes hiccups?
- What are the symptoms of hiccups?
- When should I contact my doctor for hiccups?
- How are hiccups diagnosed?
- What is the treatment or cure for hiccups?
- Are there any complications of hiccups?
- Can hiccups be prevented?
Are there any complications of hiccups?
Because most cases of hiccups resolve themselves either spontaneously or with self-administered treatment, complications are extremely rare.
Rarely, cardiac arrhythmias and gastroesophageal reflux have been noted in severe cases of hiccups.
Can hiccups be prevented?
Hiccups cannot always be prevented. Avoiding overeating, eating too quickly, or drinking too much can help prevent hiccups.
Medline Plus, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Hiccups.
The Scientific American. What Causes Hiccups?
MedscapeReference.com. Hiccups: Treatment and Medications.
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