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Hiprex

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/15/2016
Drug Description

HIPREX®
(methenamine hippurate) tablets USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of HIPREX (methenamine hippurate tablets USP) and other antibacterial drugs, HIPREX should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Each yellow capsule-shaped tablet contains 1 g Methenamine Hippurate which is the Hippuric Acid Salt of Methenamine (hexamethylene tetramine). The tablet also contains inactive ingredients. FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine, see PRECAUTIONS), Magnesium Stearate, Povidone, and Saccharin Sodium.

For Consumers

What are the possible side effects of methenamine (Hiprex, Mandelamine, Urex)?

If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking methenamine and seek emergency medical attention or contact your doctor immediately:

  • an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; or hives;
  • lower back or side pain;
  • blood in urine; or
  • increasingly painful or difficult urination.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take methenamine and talk to your doctor if you experience

  • nausea or upset...
Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

HIPREX is indicated for prophylactic or suppressive treatment of frequently recurring urinary tract infections when long-term therapy is considered necessary. This drug should only be used after eradication of the infection by other appropriate antimicrobial agents.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of HIPREX and other antibacterial drugs, HIPREX should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

1 tablet (1.0 g) twice daily (morning and night) for adults and pediatric patients over 12 years of age. ½ to 1 tablet (0.5 to 1.0 g) twice daily (morning and night) for pediatric patients 6 to 12 years of age. Since the antibacterial activity of HIPREX is greater in acid urine, restriction of alkalinizing foods and medications is desirable. If necessary, as indicated by urinary pH and clinical response, supplemental acidification of the urine should be instituted. The efficacy of therapy should be monitored by repeated urine cultures.

HOW SUPPLIED

1-gram scored, capsule-shaped yellow tablets debossed MERRELL 277 in bottles of 100 (NDC 0068- 0277-61).

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Manufactured for: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, NJ 08807. Revised: Oct 2011

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

Minor adverse reactions have been reported in less than 3.5% of patients treated. These reactions have included nausea, upset stomach, dysuria, and rash.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No information provided.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Large doses of methenamine (8 grams daily for 3 to 4 weeks) have caused bladder irritation, painful and frequent micturition, albuminuria, and gross hematuria.

PRECAUTIONS

Prescribing HIPREX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

  1. Care should be taken to maintain an acid pH of the urine, especially when treating infections due to urea-splitting organisms such as Proteus and strains of Pseudomonas.
  2. In a few instances in one study, the serum transaminase levels were slightly elevated during treatment but returned to normal while the patients were still taking HIPREX. Because of this report, it is recommended that liver function studies be performed periodically on patients taking the drug, especially those with liver dysfunction.
  3. Use in Pregnancy: In early pregnancy the safe use of HIPREX is not established. In the last trimester, safety is suggested, but not definitely proved. No adverse effects on the fetus were seen in studies in pregnant rats and rabbits.
    HIPREX taken during pregnancy can interfere with laboratory tests of urine estriol (resulting in unmeasurably low values) when acid hydrolysis is used in the laboratory procedure. This interference is due to the presence in the urine of methenamine and/or formaldehyde. Enzymatic hydrolysis, in place of acid hydrolysis, will circumvent this problem.
  4. This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine), which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible individuals. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of HIPREX did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

HIPREX is contraindicated in patients with renal insufficiency and severe hepatic insufficiency (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

No information provided.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

HIPREX (methenamine hippurate tablets USP) is contraindicated in patients with renal insufficiency, severe hepatic insufficiency, or severe dehydration. Methenamine preparations should not be given to patients taking sulfonamides because some sulfonamides may form an insoluble precipitate with formaldehyde in the urine.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

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Microbiology

HIPREX (methenamine hippurate tablets USP) has antibacterial activity because the methenamine component is hydrolyzed to formaldehyde in acid urine. Hippuric acid, the other component, has some antibacterial activity and also acts to keep the urine acid. The drug is generally active against E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. Enterobacter aerogenes is generally resistant. The urine must be kept sufficiently acid for urea-splitting organisms such as Proteus and Pseudomonas to be inhibited.

Human Pharmacology

Within ½ hour after ingestion of a single 1-gram dose of HIPREX, antibacterial activity is demonstrable in the urine. Urine has continuous antibacterial activity when HIPREX is administered at the recommended dosage schedule of 1 gram twice daily. Over 90% of methenamine moiety is excreted in the urine within 24 hours after administration of a single 1-gram dose. Similarly, the hippurate moiety is rapidly absorbed and excreted, and it reaches the urine by both tubular secretion and glomerular filtration. This action may be important in older patients or in those with some degree of renal impairment.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including HIPREX should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When HIPREX is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by HIPREX or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

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