Hormonal Methods of Birth Control (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Introduction to birth control
- Types of hormonal methods of contraception
- Oral hormones: the pill
- Injection: depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)
- Contraceptive patch: Ortho-Evra
- Vaginal ring: NuvaRing
- Contraceptive implants
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Contraceptive implants (Implanon)
A contraceptive implant known as Implanon is available in the U.S. Implanon provides contraception by the slow release of the progestin etonogestrel over a period of three years. Implanon is a thin rod that is inserted in the upper arm under local anesthesia. Protection from pregnancy occurs within 24 hours of insertion of the rod, and the failure rate is comparable with surgical sterilization (tubal ligations). One advantage of the Implanon rod is that fertility rapidly returns after removal of the rod.
Learn more about: Implanon
A two-rod implant containing the progestin levonorgestrel (Jadelle) was approved by the FDA for 5 years of use, although it has not been marketed in the United States. Similarly, the Sino-Implant II contraceptive implant is similar to Jadelle, but is designed to remain in place for 4 years.
Learn more about: Jadelle
Preliminary studies of the product showed that it was generally well tolerated and effective in preventing pregnancy. However, these studies showed that irregular bleeding is a possible side effect of the product.
As with all other hormonal methods of birth control, Implanon will not protect a woman against sexually transmitted infections.
Kost K, Singh S, Vaughan B, Trussell J, Bankole A. Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Contraception. 2008;77(1):10-21.
Previous contributing authors: Barbara K. Hecht, PhD and Carolyn Janet Crandall, MD, FACP
Last Editorial Review: 1/3/2011
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