Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Hot flash facts
- What are hot flashes?
- What causes hot flashes?
- What are the symptoms of hot flashes?
- How are hot flashes diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for hot flashes?
- Hormone Therapy
- Bioidentical hormone therapy
- Other drug treatments
- Complementary and alternative treatments
- Black cohosh
- Other alternative therapies
- Can hot flashes be prevented?
- Patient Comments: Hot Flashes - Describe Your Experience
- Patient Comments: Hot Flashes - Treatments
- Patient Comments: Hot Flashes - Causes
- Patient Comments: Hot Flashes - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Hot Flashes - Alternative Treatments
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
Hot flash facts
- Hot flashes are feelings or warmth that spread over the body and last from 30 seconds to a few minutes.
- Hot flashes are a characteristic symptom of the menopausal transition in women but may occasionally result from other medical conditions.
- About 70% of women will experience hot flashes at some point in the menopausal transition.
- Hot flashes may be treated by hormone therapy or other medications if necessary.
- Some alternative treatments for hot flashes have been proposed and may provide relief for some women; the effectiveness of other alternative treatments has not been adequately scientifically evaluated.
What are hot flashes?
A hot flash is a feeling of warmth that spreads over the body that begins in the head and neck regions. Hot flashes are a common symptom experienced by women prior to, and during the early stages of the menopausal transition. However, not all women approaching the menopause will develop hot flashes.
What causes hot flashes?
The complex hormonal changes that accompany the aging process, in particular the declining levels of estrogen as a woman approaches menopause, are thought to be the underlying cause of hot flashes. A disorder in thermoregulation (methods the body uses to control and regulate body temperature) is responsible for the heat sensation, but the exact way in which the changing hormone levels affect thermoregulation is not fully understood.
Hot flashes are considered to be a hallmark characteristic symptom of the menopausal transition. They also occur in men and in circumstances other than the perimenopause in women as a result of certain uncommon medical conditions that affect the process of thermoregulation. For example, the carcinoid syndromewhich results from a type of endocrine tumor that secretes large amounts of the hormone serotonin can cause hot flashes. Hot flashes can also develop as a side effect of some medications and sometimes occur with severe infections or cancers that may be associated with fevers and/or night sweats.
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