H.P. Acthar Gel
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H.P. Acthar Gel
H.P. Acthar Gel
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Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of H.P. Acthar Gel in the treatment of infantile spasms is unknown.
H.P. Acthar Gel and endogenous ACTH stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and a number of weakly androgenic substances. Prolonged administration of large doses of H.P. Acthar Gel induces hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex and continuous high output of cortisol, corticosterone and weak androgens. The release of endogenous ACTH is under the influence of the nervous system via the regulatory hormone released from the hypothalamus and by a negative corticosoterid feedback mechanism. Elevated plasma cortisol suppresses ACTH release.
H.P. Acthar Gel is also reported to bind to melanocortin receptors.
The trophic effects of endogenous ACTH and H.P. Acthar Gel on the adrenal cortex are not well understood beyond the fact that they appear to be mediated by cyclic AMP.
ACTH rapidly disappears from the circulation following its intravenous administration; in people, the plasma half-life is about 15 minutes. The pharmacokinetics of H.P. Acthar Gel have not been adequately characterized.
The maximal effects of a trophic hormone on a target organ are achieved when optimal amounts of hormone are acting continuously. Thus, a fixed dose of H.P. Acthar Gel will demonstrate a linear increase in adrenocortical secretion with increasing duration for the infusion.
The effectiveness of H.P. Acthar Gel as a treatment for infantile spasms was demonstrated in a single blinded (video EEG interpreter blinded) clinical trial in which patients were randomized to receive either a 2 week course of treatment with H.P. Acthar Gel (75 U/m² intramuscular twice daily) or prednisone (1 mg/kg by mouth twice daily). The primary outcome was a comparison of the number of patients in each group who were treatment responders, defined as a patient having complete suppression of both clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmia on a full sleep cycle video EEG performed 2 weeks following treatment initiation, rated by an investigator blinded to treatment. Thirteen of 15 patients (86.7%) responded to H.P. Acthar Gel as compared to 4 of 14 patients (28.6%) given prednisone (p < 0.002). The 2-week treatment was followed by a 2-week period of taper. Nonresponders to the prednisone treatment were eligible to receive H.P. Acthar Gel treatment. Seven of 8 patients (87.5%) responded to H.P. Acthar Gel after not responding to prednisone. Similarly, the 2 nonresponder patients from the H.P. Acthar Gel treatment were eligible to receive treatment with prednisone. One of the 2 patients (50%) responded to the prednisone treatment after not responding to H.P. Acthar Gel.
A supportive single-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing high-dose, long-duration treatment (150 U/m² once daily for 3 weeks, n=30) of H.P. Acthar Gel with low-dose, short-duration treatment (20 U once daily for 2 weeks, n=29) for the treatment of infantile spasms was also evaluated in infants and children less than 2 years of age. Nonresponders (defined as in the previously described study) in the low-dose group received a dose escalation at 2 weeks to 30 U once daily. Nominal statistical superiority of the high dose treatment, as compared to the low dose treatment, was observed for cessation of spasms but not for the resolution of hypsarrhythmia.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/30/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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