"What is the diabetes medication insulin and how does it work?
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by certain cells in the pancreas called beta cells. Insulin helps the body use blood glucose (a type of sugar) for energy. When we e"...
- Patient Information:
Humalog differs from Regular human insulin by its rapid onset of action as well as a shorter duration of activity. Therefore, the dose of Humalog Mix75/25 should be given within 15 minutes before a meal.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect associated with the use of insulins, including Humalog Mix75/25. As with all insulins, the timing of hypoglycemia may differ among various insulin formulations. Glucose monitoring is recommended for all patients with diabetes.
Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type (e.g., Regular, NPH, analog), species, or method of manufacture may result in the need for a change in dosage.
Fluid retention and heart failure with concomitant use of PPAR-gamma agonists: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin, including Humalog Mix75/25, and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to currentstandards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.
Hypoglycemia and hypokalemia are among the potential clinical adverse effects associated with the use of all insulins. Because of differences in the action of Humalog Mix75/25 and other insulins, care should be taken in patients in whom such potential side effects might be clinically relevant (e.g., patients who are fasting, have autonomic neuropathy, or are using potassium- lowering drugs or patients taking drugs sensitive to serum potassium level). Lipodystrophy and hypersensitivity are among other potential clinical adverse effects associated with the use of all insulins.
As with all insulin preparations, the time course of Humalog Mix75/25 action may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and is dependent on site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity.
Adjustment of dosage of any insulin may be necessary if patients change their physical activity or their usual meal plan. Insulin requirements may be altered during illness, emotional disturbances, or other stress.
As with all insulin preparations, hypoglycemic reactions may be associated with the administration of Humalog Mix75/25. Rapid changes in serum glucose concentrations may induce symptoms of hypoglycemia in persons with diabetes, regardless of the glucose value. Early warning symptoms of hypoglycemia may be different or less pronounced under certain conditions, such as long duration of diabetes, diabetic nerve disease, use of medications such as beta-blockers, or intensified diabetes control.
As with other insulins, the requirements for Humalog Mix75/25 may be reduced in patients with renal impairment.
Local Allergy — As with any insulin therapy, patients may experience redness, swelling, or itching at the site of injection. These minor reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks. In some instances, these reactions may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in the skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique.
Systemic Allergy — Less common, but potentially more serious, is generalized allergy to insulin, which may cause rash (including pruritus) over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, reduction in blood pressure, rapid pulse, or sweating. Severe cases of generalized allergy, including anaphylactic reaction, may be life threatening. Localized reactions and generalized myalgias have been reported with the use of cresol as an injectable excipient.
Antibody Production — In clinical trials, antibodies that cross-react with human insulin and insulin lispro were observed in both human insulin mixtures and insulin lispro mixtures treatment groups.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed of the potential risks and advantages of Humalog Mix75/25 and alternative therapies. Patients should not mix Humalog Mix75/25 with any other insulin. They should also be informed about the importance of proper insulin storage, injection technique, timing of dosage, adherence to meal planning, regular physical activity, regular blood glucose monitoring, periodic hemoglobin A1c testing, recognition and management of hypo- and hyperglycemia, and periodic assessment for diabetes complications.
Patients should be advised to inform their physician if they are pregnant or intend to become pregnant.
Refer patients to the PATIENT INFORMATION leaflet for information on normal appearance, timing of dosing (within 15 minutes before a meal), storing, and common adverse effects.
For Patients Using Insulin Pen Delivery Devices: Before starting therapy, patients should readthe Patient Information leaflet that accompanies the drug product and the User Manual thataccompanies the delivery device and re-read them each time the prescription is renewed. Patients should be instructed on how to properly use the delivery device, prime the Pen to a stream of insulin, and properly dispose of needles. Patients should be advised not to share their Pens with others.
As with all insulins, the therapeutic response to Humalog Mix75/25 should be monitored by periodic blood glucose tests. Periodic measurement of hemoglobin A1c is recommended for the monitoring of long-term glycemic control.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Humalog, Humalog Mix75/25, or Humalog Mix50/50. Insulin lispro was not mutagenic in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity assays (bacterial mutation tests, unscheduled DNA synthesis, mouse lymphoma assay, chromosomal aberration tests, and a micronucleus test). There is no evidence from animal studies of impairment of fertility induced by insulin lispro.
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies with insulin lispro have been performed in pregnant rats and rabbits at parenteral doses up to 4 and 0.3 times, respectively, the average human dose (40 units/day) based on body surface area. The results have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to insulin lispro. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies with Humalog, Humalog Mix75/25, or Humalog Mix50/50 in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is unknown whether insulin lispro is excreted in significant amounts in human milk. Many drugs, including human insulin, are excreted in human milk. For this reason, caution should be exercised when Humalog Mix75/25 is administered to a nursing woman. Patients with diabetes who are lactating may require adjustments in Humalog Mix75/25 dose, meal plan, or both.
Safety and effectiveness of Humalog Mix75/25 in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
Clinical studies of Humalog Mix75/25 did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should take into consideration the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in this population.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/26/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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