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Reported adverse reactions are bone marrow depression (leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal symptoms (stomatitis, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation), and dermatological reactions such as maculopapular rash, skin ulceration, dermatomyositis-like skin changes, peripheral and facial erythema. Hyperpigmentation, atrophy of skin and nails, scaling, and violet papules have been observed in some patients after several years of long-term daily maintenance therapy with HYDREA (hydroxyurea) . Skin cancer has been reported. Cutaneous vasculitic toxicities, including vasculitic ulcerations and gangrene, have occurred in patients with myeloproliferative disorders during therapy with hydroxyurea. These vasculitic toxicities were reported most often in patients with a history of, or currently receiving, interferon therapy (see WARNINGS). Dysuria and alopecia have been reported. Large doses may produce moderate drowsiness. Neurological disturbances have occurred and were limited to headache, dizziness, disorientation, hallucinations, and convulsions. HYDREA (hydroxyurea) may cause temporary impairment of renal tubular function accompanied by elevations in serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Abnormal bromsulphalein (BSP) retention has been reported. Fever, chills, malaise, edema, asthenia, and elevation of hepatic enzymes have also been reported.
Adverse reactions observed with combined hydroxyurea and irradiation therapy are similar to those reported with the use of hydroxyurea or radiation treatment alone. These effects primarily include bone marrow depression (anemia and leukopenia), gastric irritation, and mucositis. Almost all patients receiving an adequate course of combined hydroxyurea and irradiation therapy will demonstrate concurrent leukopenia. Platelet depression ( < 100,000 cells/mm³) has occurred in the presence of marked leukopenia. HYDREA (hydroxyurea) may potentiate some adverse reactions usually seen with irradiation alone, such as gastric distress and mucositis.
The association of hydroxyurea with the development of acute pulmonary reactions consisting of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, fever, and dyspnea has been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis also has been reported.
In HIV-infected patients who received hydroxyurea in combination with antiretroviral agents, in particular, didanosine plus stavudine, fatal and nonfatal pancreatitis and hepatotoxicity, and severe peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Patients treated with hydroxyurea in combination with didanosine, stavudine, and indinavir in Study ACTG 5025 showed a median decline in CD4 cells of approximately 100/mm³. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.)
Read the Hydrea (hydroxyurea) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Prospective studies on the potential for hydroxyurea to interact with other drugs have not been performed.
Concurrent use of hydroxyurea and other myelosuppressive agents or radiation therapy may increase the likelihood of bone marrow depression or other adverse events. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Since hydroxyurea may raise the serum uric acid level, dosage adjustment of uricosuric medication may be necessary.
Read the Hydrea Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/23/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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