Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C)
Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) is an Attending Physician with the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Associate Director of Clinical Research, Recruitment and Phenotyping with the Center for Androgen Related Disorders, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Hypercalcemia Introduction
- What are the causes of hypercalcemia?
- What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
- How is hypercalcemia diagnosed?
- How is hypercalcemia treated?
- What is the prognosis for hypercalcemia?
- Can hypercalcemia be prevented?
- Hypercalcemia At A Glance
What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
In the majority of patients with hypercalcemia, the signs and symptoms are minimal. In general, the symptoms increase with higher levels of calcium in the blood. In severe cases, the elevated calcium levels can cause abnormal heart rhythms with specific findings on electrocardiogram (EKG).
Because of the clinical findings that are seen in hypercalcemia, the symptoms are often described as "moans, stones, groans, and bones".
Some of the symptoms include the following:
Moans (gastrointestinal conditions)
Stones (kidney-related conditions)
Groans (psychological conditions)
Bones (bone pain and bone-related conditions)
- Bone aches and pains
- Curving of the spine and loss of height
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