Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C)
Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) is an Attending Physician with the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Associate Director of Clinical Research, Recruitment and Phenotyping with the Center for Androgen Related Disorders, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- What is hyperthyroidism?
- What are the thyroid hormones?
- Thyroid hormone regulation - the chain of command
- What causes hyperthyroidism?
- What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
- How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?
- How is hyperthyroidism treated?
- What's best for you?
- Hyperthyroidism At A Glance
- Pictures of Hyperthyroidism - Slideshow
- Pictures of Thyroid Medical Anatomy
- Pictures of Thyroid Conditions - Slideshow
- Thyroid FAQs
- Patient Comments: Hyperthyroidism - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Hyperthyroidism - Treatments
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
What is hyperthyroidism?
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which an overactive thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in the blood. ("Hyper" means "over" in Greek). Thyrotoxicosis is a toxic condition that is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones from any cause. Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by an excessive intake of thyroid hormone or by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Because both physicians and patients often use these words interchangeably, we will take some liberty by using the term "hyperthyroidism" throughout this article.
What are thyroid hormones?
Thyroid hormones stimulate the metabolism of cells. They are produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam's apple. The gland wraps around the windpipe (trachea) and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly formed by two wings (lobes) and attached by a middle part (isthmus).
The thyroid gland removes iodine from the blood (which comes mostly from a diet of foods such as seafood, bread, and salt) and uses it to produce thyroid hormones. The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) representing 99.9% and 0.1% of thyroid hormones respectively. The hormone with the most biological activity (for example, the greatest effect on the body) is actually T3. Once released from the thyroid gland into the blood, a large amount of T4 is converted to T3 - the more active hormone that affects the metabolism of cells.
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