"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Gazyva (obinutuzumab) for use in combination with chlorambucil to treat patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
CLL is a blood and bone ma"...
Thrombosis and Thromboembolism
Serious arterial thrombosis occurred in 8% (34/449) of Iclusig-treated patients. Twenty-one patients required a revascularization procedure (16 patients with coronary revascularization, 4 patients with peripheral arterial revascularization, and 1 patient with cerebrovascular revascularization). Overall, fifty-one patients (11%) experienced an arterial thrombosis event of any grade.
Myocardial infarction or worsening coronary artery disease was the most common arterial thrombosis event and occurred in 21 patients (5%) of Iclusig-treated patients. Eleven of these patients developed congestive heart failure concurrent or subsequent to the myocardial ischemic event.
Serious cerebrovascular events were reported in 2% (8/449) of Iclusig-treated patients. Two patients experiencedhemorrhagic conversion of the initial ischemic event. Four patients developed stenosis of large arterial vessels of the brain (e.g., carotid, vertebral, middle cerebral artery).
Serious peripheral arterial events were reported in 2% (7/449) of Iclusig-treated patients. Three patients developed digital or distal extremity necrosis; 2 of these patients had diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease and required amputations.
Thirty of 34 Iclusig-treated patients who experienced a serious arterial thrombosis event had one or more cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking). Patients with cardiovascular risk factors are at increased risk for arterial thrombosis with Iclusig. Interrupt and consider discontinuation of Iclusig in patients who develop arterial thrombotic events [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Venous thromboembolic events occurred in 3% of Iclusig-treated patients, including deep venous thrombosis (9 patients), pulmonary embolism (4 patients), and 1 case each of portal vein thrombosis, and retinal vein thrombosis. Consider dose modification or discontinuation of Iclusig in patients who develop serious venous thromboembolism [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Hepatotoxicity that has resulted in liver failure and death occurred in Iclusig-treated patients. Fulminant hepatic failure leading to death occurred in an Iclusig-treated patient within one week of starting Iclusig. Two additional fatal cases of acute liver failure also occurred. The fatal cases occurred in patients with BP-CML or Ph+ ALL. Severe hepatotoxicity occurred in all disease cohorts.
The incidence of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was 56% (all grades) and 8% (grade 3 or 4). Iclusig treatment may result in elevation in ALT, AST, or both. ALT or AST elevation was not reversed by the date of last follow-up in 5% of patients.
Monitor liver function tests at baseline, at least monthly or as clinically indicated. Interrupt, reduce or discontinue Iclusig as clinically indicated [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Congestive Heart Failure
Twenty patients treated with Iclusig (4%) experienced serious congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, with 4 fatalities. Thirty-three patients treated with Iclusig (7%) experienced any grade of congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms consistent with congestive heart failure and treat as clinically indicated, including interruption of Iclusig. Consider discontinuation of Iclusig in patients who develop serious congestive heart failure [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Eight patients treated with Iclusig (2%) experienced treatment-emergent symptomatic hypertension as a serious adverse reaction, including hypertensive crisis. These patients required urgent clinical intervention for hypertension associated with confusion, headache, chest pain, or shortness of breath.
Treatment-emergent hypertension occurred in 67% of patients (300/449) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In patients with baseline systolic BP < 140 mm Hg and baseline diastolic BP < 90mm Hg, 78% (220/282) experienced treatment-emergent hypertension; 49% (139/282) developed Stage 1 hypertension (defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm
Hg) while 29% developed Stage 2 hypertension (defined as systolic BP ≥ 160 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 100 mm Hg. In 131 patients with Stage 1 hypertension at baseline, 61% (80/131) developed Stage 2 hypertension. Monitor and manage blood pressure elevations.
Clinical pancreatitis occurred in 6% (28/449) of patients (5% grade 3) treated with Iclusig. Pancreatitis resulted in discontinuation or treatment interruption in 6% of patients (25/449). Twenty-two of the 28 cases of pancreatitis resolved within 2 weeks with dose interruption or reduction. The incidence of treatment-emergent lipase elevation was 41%.
Check serum lipase every 2 weeks for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter or as clinically indicated. Consider additional serum lipase monitoring in patients with a history of pancreatitis or alcohol abuse. Dose interruption or reduction may be required. In cases where lipase elevations are accompanied by abdominal symptoms, interrupt treatment with Iclusig and evaluate patients for pancreatitis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Do not consider restarting Iclusig until patients have complete resolution of symptoms and lipase levels are less than 1.5 x ULN.
Serious bleeding events, occurred in 5% (22/449) of patients treated with Iclusig, including fatalities. Hemorrhagic events occurred in 24% of patients. The incidence of serious bleeding events was higher in patients with AP-CML, BP-CML, and Ph+ ALL. Cerebral hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were the most commonly reported serious bleeding events. Most hemorrhagic events occurred in patients with grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Interrupt Iclusig for serious or severe hemorrhage [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Fluid retention events judged as serious occurred in 3% (13/449) of patients treated with Iclusig. One instance of brain edema was fatal. Serious fluid retention events in more than 1 patient included: pericardial effusion (6/449, 1%), pleural effusion (5/449, 1%), and ascites (2/449, < 1%).
In total, fluid retention occurred in 23% of the patients. The most common fluid retention events were peripheral edema (16%), pleural effusion (7%), and pericardial effusion (3%).
Monitor patients for fluid retention and manage patients as clinically indicated. Interrupt, reduce, or discontinue Iclusig as clinically indicated [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Symptomatic bradyarrhythmias that led to a requirement for pacemaker implantation occurred in 3 (1%) Iclusig-treated patients. The cardiac rhythms (1 case each) identified were complete heart block, sick sinus syndrome, and atrial fibrillation with bradycardia and pauses. Advise patients to report signs and symptoms suggestive of slow heart rate (fainting, dizziness, or chest pain).
Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias occurred in 25 (5%) Iclusig-treated patients. Atrial fibrillation was the most common supraventricular tachyarrhythmia and occurred in 20 patients. The other supraventricular tachyarrhythmias were atrial flutter (4 patients), supraventricular tachycardia (4 patients), and atrial tachycardia (1 patient). For 13 patients, the event led to hospitalization. Advise patients to report signs and symptoms of rapid heart rate (palpitations, dizziness).
Severe (grade 3 or 4) myelosuppression occurred in 48% (215/449) of patients treated with Iclusig. The incidence of these events was greater in patients with accelerated phase CML (AP-CML), blast phase CML (BP-CML) and Ph+ ALL than in patients with chronic phase CML (CP-CML). Obtain complete blood counts every 2 weeks for the first 3 months and then monthly or as clinically indicated, and adjust the dose as recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Two patients ( < 1%) treated with Iclusig developed serious tumor lysis syndrome. Both cases occurred in patients with advanced CML. Hyperuricemia occurred in 7% (30/449) of patients, the majority had chronic phase CML (19 patients). Due to the potential for tumor lysis syndrome in patients with advanced disease (AP-CML, BP-CML, or Ph+ ALL), ensure adequate hydration and treat high uric acid levels prior to initiating therapy with Iclusig.
Compromised Wound Healing and Gastrointestinal Perforation
No formal studies of the effect of Iclusig on wound healing have been conducted. Based on the mechanism of action [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], Iclusig could compromise wound healing. Serious gastrointestinal perforation (fistula) occurred in one patient 38 days post-cholecystectomy.
Interrupt Iclusig for at least 1 week prior to major surgery. The decision when to resume Iclusig after surgery should be based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing.
Iclusig can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals. Ponatinib caused embryo-fetal toxicity in rats at exposures lower than human exposures at the recommended human dose. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Advise women to avoid pregnancy while taking Iclusig [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Medication Guide).
Advise patients of the following and provide a copy of the Medication Guide:
Thrombosis and Thromboembolism
Inform patients that serious arterial thromboses (including arterial stenosis sometimes requiring revascularization) and venous thromboembolism events have occurred. Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider with any symptoms suggestive of a blood clot such as chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness on one side of the body, speech problems, leg pain, or leg swelling [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of developing liver function abnormalities and serious hepatic toxicity. Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider if signs of liver failure occur, including yellowing of the eyes or skin, “tea”- colored urine, or drowsiness [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Arrhythmias
Inform patients of the possibility of congestive heart failure, and abnormally slow or fast heart rates. Advise patients to contact their health care provide if they experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, or fainting [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of new or worsening of existing hypertension. Advise patients to contact their health care provider for elevated blood pressure or if symptoms of hypertension occur including headache, dizziness, chest pain, or shortness of breath [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of developing pancreatitis that may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or abdominal discomfort, and to promptly report these symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of serious bleeding and to immediately contact their health care provider with any signs or symptoms suggestive of hemorrhage such as unusual bleeding or easy bruising [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of developing fluid retention and to contact their health care provider for symptoms such as leg swelling, abdominal swelling, weight gain, or shortness of breath [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the possibility of developing low blood cell counts; inform patients to report immediately should fever develop, particularly in association with any suggestion of infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Compromised Wound Healing and Gastrointestinal Perforation
Advise patients to inform their health care provider if they plan to undergo a surgical procedure or had recent surgery [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that cases of gastrointestinal perforation have been reported [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that Iclusig can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of the potential hazard to a fetus and to avoid becoming pregnant [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
Instructions for Taking Iclusig
Advise patients to take Iclusig exactly as prescribed and not to change their dose or to stop taking Iclusig unless they are told to do so by their health care provider. Iclusig may be taken with or without food. Iclusig tablets should be swallowed whole. Patients should not crush or dissolve the tablets.
Patients should not take two doses at the same time to make up for a missed dose.
Inform patients that Iclusig contains 121 mg of lactose monohydrate in a 45 mg daily dose.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with ponatinib.
Ponatinib was not mutagenic in a bacterial mutagenesis (Ames) assay, was not clastogenic in a chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes, nor was it clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg.
Ponatinib may impair male and female fertility. Fertility studies using ponatinib were not conducted. However, ponatinib effects on male and female reproductive organs observed during general toxicology studies included degeneration of epithelium of the testes in rats and monkeys and follicular atresia in the monkey ovary with associated endometrial atrophy. Effects seen in rats were at exposures approximating the AUC in patients receiving the recommended dose of 45 mg/day and in monkeys were approximately 4 times the AUC in patients.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy - Pregnancy Category D
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, Iclusig can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with Iclusig in pregnant women. Advise women to avoid becoming pregnant while taking Iclusig. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Ponatinib was studied for effects on embryo-fetal development in pregnant rats given oral doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg/day during organogenesis. At the maternally toxic dose of 3 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the AUC in patients receiving the recommended dose of 45 mg/day), ponatinib caused embryo-fetal toxicity as shown by increased resorptions, reduced body weight, external alterations, multiple soft tissue and skeletal alterations, and reduced ossification. Embryo-fetal toxicities also were observed at 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 24% the AUC in patients receiving the recommended dose) and involved multiple fetal soft tissue and skeletal alterations, including reduced ossification.
It is unknown whether ponatinib is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ponatinib, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Iclusig, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and efficacy of Iclusig in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
One hundred and fifty-five of 449 patients (35%) in the clinical trial of Iclusig were 65 years of age and over. In patients with CP-CML, patients of age ≥ 65 years had a lower major cytogenetic response rate (38%) as compared with patients < 65 years of age (64%). In patients with AP-CML, BP-CML, and Ph+ ALL, patients of age ≥ 65 years had a higher major hematologic response rate (47%) as compared with patients < 65 years of age (40%). Patients of age ≥ 65 years may be more likely to experience adverse reactions including decreased platelet count, peripheral edema, increased lipase, dyspnea, asthenia, muscle spasms, and decreased appetite. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Iclusig has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment.
As hepatic elimination is a major route of excretion for Iclusig, hepatic impairment may result in increased ponatinib exposure. Avoid Iclusig in patients with moderate to severe (Child-Pugh B or C) hepatic impairment unless the benefit outweighs the possible risk of ponatinib overexposure [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment may be at increased risk for adverse reactions [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Iclusig has not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Although renal excretion is not a major route of ponatinib elimination, the potential for moderate or severe renal impairment to affect hepatic elimination has not been determined [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/30/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Iclusig Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find out what women really need.